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ItemAcceptance of online shopping by individuals in South African townships(2018) Dzimati, ShoraiInternet connectivity has revolutionised the way we conduct our day-to-day activities like banking, communication, travelling arrangements and shopping. Internet has enabled the birth of many technological innovations throughout the world including online shopping. Online shopping is the process of purchasing goods and services from online stores also known as e-tailers over the internet. In developing countries like South Africa, buying and selling of commodities makes up most of the economic activities. Individuals. With the increase in internet connectivity, individuals now have an option to replace the traditional brick and mortar shopping with online shopping. Although online technology is already in maturity phase in the developed countries, for South Africa as a developing country, it is still in its infancy. This might be attributed to factors that may include late penetration of the internet as well as logistical challenges which common in most developing countries. South Africa as a developing country needs technology to grow its economy into a developed country and online technology is one of the key technologies required to achieve this. The majority South African population comes from the townships which means that township dwellers constitute the majority of the consumers. Online shopping technology has potential to contribute towards the growth of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) which is a key part of the South African economy. This demographic set up in South Africa makes it critical for business and academics to understand the acceptance of technology in South African townships, with online shopping being one of these key technologies. The study investigated factors affecting acceptance of online shopping by individuals in South African townships using the adapted unified theory of technology acceptance theory (UTAUT). Using a hypothetical model to test various hypotheses, the study followed a positivist research paradigm. Through the theoretical lens of the adapted unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT). A survey was used as the data collection method. The hypotheses were tested and analysed to further understand the factors affecting acceptance of online shopping by individuals in South Africa. Findings of this study revealed that the elements of the adapted unified theory of technology acceptance theory (UTAUT) are strong in predicting acceptance of online shopping in South African townships. Elements like performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence as well as trust proved to be significant in predicting acceptance of online technology. This research will assist academics and practitioners to further understand the acceptance of online shopping by individuals. ItemAchievement of organisational goals and motivation of middle level managers within the context of the two-factor theory(2014) Jansen, A; Samuel, MOThe ever dynamic nature of the world of work requires that organisations constantly review factors that energise managers (particularly middle level managers) towards achievement of set goals. This category of employees translates strategic decisions by top management into action through the operational employees. They (middle level managers) therefore serve as a link between top management and the lower level employees thus making their role to be of outmost importance to the survival and competitiveness of any organisation thus necessitating the need of our present study. The study adopted a survey research method using quantitative research design. A measuring instrument with a Cronbach alpha coefficient of above 0.70 was developed and used to collect primary data. Non-random sampling technique using purposive/convenience sampling procedure was employed in deriving a sample size of 250 middle-level managers who participated in the survey. Main hypotheses were formulated and tested using the Chi-Square test to determine the level of association between intrinsic and extrinsic motivational variables and achievement of organisational goals by middle level managers. Results show that both intrinsic and extrinsic motivational variables impacted significantly on achievement of organisational goals by this category of managers. Based on this finding, we therefore recommend that organisations should combine both intrinsic and extrinsic motivational variables in the design of goal achievement strategy for middle level managers. ItemAn analysis of the income tax consequences attendant upon the transfer of contingent liabilities in the sale of a business as a going concern(2017) Hansraj, ShivonaThe transfer of contingent liabilities as part of a sale of business transaction has always been a contentious issue. In particular, there is still a measure of uncertainty in whose hands, if any, contingent liabilities transferred as part of a sale of business may be deductible. Sale of business agreements may be structured in various ways, for example, the purchaser may acquire the seller’s business in exchange for cash, the creation of a loan account, or the assumption of liabilities. Furthermore, in the context of intra-group transactions to which the group roll-over relief provisions apply, the Income Tax Act 19621 (‘the Income Tax Act’) does not specifically address the transfer of contingent liabilities. This research report addresses the income tax consequences arising from the transfer of contingent liabilities from the seller to the purchaser, including an analysis of the relevant group roll-over relief provisions. Key words: Ackermans Judgment, Actually Incurred, Contingent Liabilities, Free-standing Contingent Liabilities, General Deduction Formula, Group roll-over relief, Interpretation Note 94, Sale of Business Transaction, SARS. ItemAssessing alternative monetary policy frameworks and instruments in selected African economies(2017) Chiumia, Austin BelewaThis thesis contains three core chapters that assess the performance of alternative monetary policy frameworks and instruments in stabilizing 10 selected African economies. Literature and practice show that Advanced Economies (AEs) and Emerging Market Economies (EMEs) are mostly adopting the ination targeting (IT) framework. This framework relies on active use of the interest rate as a policy instrument for macroeconomic stabilisation. Di⁄erent from AEs and EMEs, the majority of African countries are characterized by low nancial market development, frequent supply shocks and volatile terms of trade. These features impede the e¢ ciency of the IT framework and the interest rate instrument. Supply shocks imply that ination is not only demand driven. Volatile terms of trade translate into excessive exchange rate uctuations. Due to these factors, policy practice in Africa remains largely divergent from the global trend. Authorities still rely on monetary aggregate targeting (MAT) with de facto managed exchange rates. However, the MAT framework is also failing to stabilize economies. This follows instability of the key factors, such as the money demand, upon which the framework is anchored. Furthermore, controlling exchange rate movements is a challenge due to weak balance of payments positions. It is not surprising, therefore, that the majority of African economies still remain in the grip of macroeconomic instability. Ination and GDP targets are rarely met and they also remain volatile. The perverse macroeconomic features and the perceived failure of the MAT regime have necessitated the search for alternative monetary frameworks and instruments. In this study, we join the search by specically focussing on three questions. First, given the macroeconomic landscape in Africa, what is the relative performance of the interest rate vis--vis the monetary aggregate as instru iv ments for macroeconomic stabilization? Secondly, how do these instruments perform when apart from ination and output stabilization, monetary policy also engages in smoothing exchange rate uctuations? Thirdly, what is the relative performance of ination targeting vis--vis nominal GDP targeting as alternative monetary policy regimes for macroeconomic stabilization in African economies? Although the success of monetary policy largely relies on appropriate conguration of monetary policy frameworks and instruments, answers to these questions remain controversial and scanty for African economies. In order to address these questions, we formulate a New Keynesian Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium (DSGE) model. In this model, money is non-separable from consumption in the utility function. We estimate the model using the Maximum Likelihood method with quarterly data mostly from 1990 to 2014. The data is obtained from the International Financial Statistics (IFS). The thesis has ve chapters. Chapter 1 is the general background to the research problem. Chapters 2, 3 and 4 are distinct but related core chapters addressing three specic research questions. Chapter 5 is the conclusion. In Chapter 2, we compare the performance of the monetary aggregate and the interest rate as alternative instruments for stabilizing ination and output in 10 selected countries. Results show that the monetary aggregate is superior in stabilizing 5 economies. In the other 5 countries, it is the interest rate instrument which performs better. In the former group of countries, the monetary aggregate plays a relatively large role in macroeconomic dynamics while in the latter the interest rate is more signicant. These results partly reect di⁄erences in nancial market development between the two groups of countries. Overall, we nd a weak role of the interest rate compared to the monetary aggregate in driving aggregate demand dynamics. The exchange rate is also found to be a key driver of macroeconomic dynamics. Our re v sults suggest three things: First, authorities in Africa need to be cautious of a blanket adoption of the interest rate as a sole monetary policy instrument. Second, authorities will nd it di¢ cult to stabilize economies using the interest rate based frameworks. Third, exchange rate stability is key to macroeconomic stability in Africa. In Chapter 3, we extend the authoritiesobjective function. In addition to minimizing ination and output volatility, authorities also use the interest rate or money supply rules to smooth exchange rate uctuations. The results show that macroeconomic performance is enhanced when authorities smooth exchange rate uctuations in 4 of the 10 countries. The gains from exchange rate smoothing mostly arise from a reduction in ination and exchange rate volatility but not fromoutput. In the other 6 countries, exchange rate smoothing worsens macroeconomic performance. These results reect the fact that the exchange rate exerts a relatively large inuence in macroeconomic dynamics in the rst group of countries compared to the latter. Exchange rate smoothing therefore minimizes the pass-through of the exchange uctuations to ination and output leading to better performance. Overall, the ndings suggest that exchange rate smoothing is harmful in Africa. Where exchange rate smoothing delivers gains, appropriate thresholdsofsmoothingneedtobeobservedtoavoidpolicyinducedmacroeconomic instability. Authorities should also smooth temporal rather that structural shifts in the exchange rate level. In Chapter 4, we compare the performance of ination targeting (IT) vis-vis nominal GDP targeting (NGDPT) as alternative monetary policy frameworks for macroeconomic stabilization. We examine the strict and exible versions of these policy regimes. We also include a hybrid regime which combines elements of IT and NGDPT. Results show that the hybrid regime performs better in 5 countries. In the other 4 countries, it is the strict ination targeting that performs better. In 1 country, exible ination tar vi geting is optimal. The results also reveal that demand shocks dominate but are closely trailed by supply and exchange rate shocks in explaining macroeconomic uctuations. The multiplicity of signicant shocks is key in explaining the dominance of the hybrid regime. The hybrid regime successfully handles shocks that can neither be optimally handled by the IT regime nor the NGDPT regime alone. These results have several implications. First, demand management alone is insu¢ cient to stabilize African economies. Second, identifying dominant shocks is critical for choosing robust monetary policy regimes. Third, the multiplicity of signicant shocks implies that choosing monetary policy frameworks and hence macroeconomic management process is more complex for African policy makers. Overall, the results have several policy implications which are outlined in Chapter 5. First, they suggest a cautious approach towards generalized adoption of the interest rate over the monetary aggregate as a monetary policy instrument in African economies. This contradicts the current wave of monetary policy changes sweeping across African countries. Secondly, the signicanceoftheexchangeraterenderscredencetoexchangeratesmoothing in Africa. The ndings, however, suggest that exchange rate smoothing can either enhance or worsen macroeconomic performance. Where it enhances macroeconomic performance, authorities must carefully consider the thresholds of smoothing to avoid creating macroeconomic instability. Authorities need not ght structural shifts in exchange rates levels through smoothing. This would help to preserve the shock absorbing role of the exchange rate. Finally, the prevalence of demand, supply as well as exchange rate shocks makes the hybrid monetary policy regime which combines elements of IT regime as well as NGDPT regime to perform relatively better in stabilizing the majority of the economies. Given the multiplicity of shocks, authorities inAfricaneedtocomplementdemandmanagementwithpoliciesthataddress supply side and exchange rate bottlenecks to ensure sustainable macroeco vii nomic stability. Overall, the ndings suggest that there is scope to improve monetary policy performance in Africa by adopting suitable frameworks and instruments. The results also highlight the problem of tackling monetary policy issues with a "one size ts all" approach. ItemAn assessment of the effectiveness of self-service technology in a university enviroment: The case of University of the Witwatersrand(2014) Ngcwabe, Y; Chiliya, NSelf-service is basically a method of serving oneself in business-related organisation without the help of an employee. With the exponential increase of the technology, service companies adopt Self-Service Technologies (SSTs) as their innovative tools to create value. A great amount of research has focused on customers’ perspectives of adopting SSTs using factors of SST adoption, attitudes and intentions toward to use the SST. However, studies on the adoption of SSTs at University institutions particularly in South Africa has not been explored extensively. The notion of self-service is positioned as an important part of the overall system where students are to view, input and modify administrative and financial information on themselves, their work and their courses. Convenience is a major benefit of self-service technology and individuals that are not techno savvy or lack technological resources cannot reap the benefits of SSTs to its fullest potential. The study evaluates the attitudes and perceptions that students have regarding SSTs. This research consisted of a self-administered quantitative research questionnaire, which was initially tested using two pilot studies of 30 and 20 respondents respectively. The questionnaire was distributed at the University of the Witwatersrand (Wits) to a sample group of 380 respondents between the ages of 18 to 30. The data collected was analysed using statistical analysis to examine the relationships between the variables in the research model. Results indicate that some students still value face-to-face service encounters, others lack resources to use SSTs and the effect of self-efficacy limits other students from using SSTs to their fullest potential. Perceived waiting time also has a great influence on the actual use and frequency of SSTs. ItemAn assessment of the public attitudes towards the inner City of Johannesburg as a branded destination(2014) Daya, Nikita JC; Chiliya, NCities across the world have shifted their focus to urban development and place marketing strategies. These concepts are increasingly becoming important since the competition between cities have intensified globally in order to obtain investments, attract tourists, provide better living space, and to improve community businesses and overall economies of the city. Johannesburg has made use of various labels to provide a unique and attractive destination brand. The city has undergone significant changes in order to improve and reposition its image. In particular, there has been a focus on the redevelopment and brand image repositioning of the Inner City of Johannesburg. Redevelopment strategies have been outlined and implemented in order to improve the areas within the Inner City of Johannesburg. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the current attitudes and perceptions of the public towards the Inner City of Johannesburg. A quantitative approach was used. A convenience sample consisting of 343 individuals within the Inner City of Johannesburg completed the distributed survey instrument. The data analysis consists of multiple linear regression analysis. The results of this study indicate that Government services and social bonding are the key factors the public value when they visit the inner city. ItemAttitudes and purchase behaviour of green products among generation Y consumers in South Africa(2014) Anvar, M; Venter, MThe purpose of this study was to determine what factors influence attitudes and purchase behaviour of green products among Generation Y consumers in South Africa. The factors that were under investigation in this study were social influence, environmental awareness and price. Further, this study aimed to investigate whether consumer attitudes can in fact influence consumers’ purchase behaviour of green products. A quantitative approach was used for data gathering. Data collection was conducted by means of self-administered questionnaires among 200 students between the ages of 18 to 23. The data was analysed by using statistical methods such as simple and multiple linear regressions. The results from the study indicated that social influence, environmental awareness and price, positively influence individuals’ attitudes towards green products. The effect of attitude on buying behaviour was also positive; hence consumers with positive attitudes towards green products are more likely to purchase green products. Further, the findings indicated that there is indeed a difference between males and females with regards to buying behaviour of green. The findings of the study will provide marketers with a clearer understanding as to how they can influence Generation Y’s attitude and buying behaviour towards green products. With the Generation Y cohort being of crucial importance to marketers, companies can drive sales and increase market share through appropriate marketing strategies. This is essential for a developing country such as South Africa, and among Generation Y consumers whom will play an active role in the future global economy. ItemBook-to-market ratio and returns on the JSE(Taylor and Francis, 2006) Auret, CJ; Sinclaire, RAMany firm-specific attributes or characteristics are understood to be proxies for what Fama and French (1992: p428) refer to as “the unnamed sources of risk”. Perhaps the most notorious of these is the size of the firm or its market value, first documented by Banz (1981). The relationship between size and average returns has become known as the “size effect”. ItemBrand endorsements: An exploratory study into the effectiveness of using video game characters as brand endorsers(2014) Shelton, J; Chiliya, NCelebrity endorsements have been established as one of the most preferred methods of advertising by marketers (Patel, 2009). Biswas, Hussain and O’Donnell (2009) enumerates five specific benefits of employing celebrity endorsers for a brand, they can be summarised as follows: drawing attention, crisis management, brand repositioning, global marketing, and boosting sales. However the benefits of using a celebrity endorser can be markedly reversed if the celebrity, is involved in a controversial incident, loses credibility by endorsing too many brands, suddenly changes their image, overshadows the brand which is being endorsed, experiences a drop in popularity, is the centre of negative publicity, or fails to perform within their specific career (Erdogan, 1999). As a solution to these problems this research has investigated the use of video game characters as celebrity brand endorsers. Video game characters are celebrities in their own right but they are not plagued by the same risks and problems as ordinary celebrities (Avery, Ferrand, Nicholas & Rowley, 2006; Shimp & Till, 1998). This exploratory study used a quantitative research approach. A self-administered questionnaire using a 7-point Likert scale was developed and piloted. The questionnaire was distributed at the University of the Witwatersrand to a sample group of 484 respondents between the ages of 18 to 25. Fictitious adverts were used as stimuli during the questionnaire. Convenience sampling was used because of time and monetary constraints. The linear regression results proved that video game characters are effective as brand endorsers and can be used in place of an ordinary celebrity to increase the purchase intentions of the target audience. It can be recommended that video game companies seek opportunities to create partnerships with marketers to use their characters as brand endorsers. ItemBusiness rescue practices in South Africa: An explorative view(AOSIS (pty) Ltd, 2018-06-20) Naidoo, T; Patel, A; Padia, NGiven the seemingly low rate of success of the current business rescue regime (at just 13.6% as at June 2015), this study sought to identify whether the current business rescue regime in South Africa realises its intended objectives and why this meeting of objectives or failure to do so may be the case. It focuses on practical issues and the investigation is undertaken through interviews with business rescue practitioners who are the facilitators of business rescue. The findings show that there is a lack of clarity in the definition of success which may be cause for concern and that, despite its consistency with other jurisdictions, in the views of practitioners, the success rate is expected to improve. The study finds that there is a lack of prompt action when signs of financial distress are noted and a lack of funding for companies in business rescue. The experience of the practitioner has a significant impact on the success or failure of the rescue and may be one of the reasons for the current low rate of success of the regime, while the specific qualifications of the practitioner play a smaller role. The plan is imperative but there is often a lack of information and insufficient time allocated to its preparation. Consistency of Court judgements also has a bearing on success of business rescue, while consistency with provisions of other jurisdictions is not considered to be important. ItemCall centre job differences(2014) Jansen, A; Callaghan, CWThis research tested theory that predicted differences in the relationships between perceptions of management, satisfaction and performance by call centre job type. A sample of a hundred and ninety respondents was drawn from South African call centres. Findings suggest that outbound call centre agents are significantly more job dissatisfied than inbound agents, along certain dimensions. Outbound agents, sales agents and after service agents were found to rate their performance quality significantly lower than the rest of the cohort; in contrast, inbound agents and customer queries agents were found to rate their performance more highly. On the basis of the findings it is argued that assumptions of homogeneity in call centre work is problematic. It is recommended that different management strategies be built around different types of call centre work, that are responsive to the needs of those engaged in each type of work. It is also recommended that job enrichment be applied to all types of call centre work to potentially increase variability in tasks, which might increase autonomy and job satisfaction in this type of work. ItemCan progressive macroeconomic policy address growth and employment while reducing inequality in South Africa(2019) Padayachee, MThis article aims to set out some progressive, mainly post-Keynesian, macroeconomic policy ideas for debate and further research in the context of macroeconomic challenges faced by South Africa today. Despite some successes, including at reducing poverty, the South African economy has been characterised by low growth, rising unemployment and increasing inequality, which together with rampant corruption and governance failures combine to threaten the very core of the country’s stability and democracy. The neo-liberal economic policies that the African National Congress–led government surprisingly adopted in 1996 in order to assuage global markets sceptical of its historical support for dirigiste economic policy, have simply not worked. Appropriate progressive macroeconomic interventions are urgently needed to head off the looming prospect of a failed state in the country which Nelson Mandela led to democracy after his release from prison in February 1990. What happens in Africa’s southern tip should still matter for progressives all around the world. The article draws on both history and theory to demonstrate the roots of such progressive heterodox economic thinking and support for a more carefully coordinated activist state-led macroeconomic policy, both in general terms and in the South African context. It shows that such approaches to growth and development – far from being populist – also have a rich history and respectable theoretical pedigree behind them and are worthy of inclusion in the South African policy debate. ItemCompeting theories of the wage-price spiral and their forecast ability(2017) Mokoka, TshepoThis thesis contains three main chapters. The rst chapter employs wageprice spirals to generate ination forecasts for Australia, Canada, France, South Korea, South Africa, United Kingdom and the United States. We use three competing specications of the wage-price spirals, and test which specication provides the best forecasts of price ination. For each specication we provide one quarter, four quarter and eight quarter ahead dynamic forecasts of price ination. The rst two wage-price spirals in the rst chapter are from the Keynesian tradition from te standpoint of expectations formation. The chapter also considers the New Keynesian wage-price spiral. We use the Root Means Square Error and the Clark and West statistic to compare the performance of ination forecasts from the three competing wage-price spirals that we consider in the rst chapter of the thesis. We nd that the New Keynesian wage and price specication su⁄ers from the wrong sign problem, and its forecasts of price ination generally outperform those from the old Keynesian wage price spiral for the eight quarter ahead time horizon. The usefulness of this nding to the conduct of monetary policy is limited due to the wrong sign problem of the forcing variable in the New Keynesian wageprice spiral. We also nd that the Flaschel type specication of price and wage ination produce four and eight quarter head ination forecasts that are better than those from the Fair type specication. We further nd that the Fair type specication price and wage equation produce the best forecasts of ination for the one quarter ahead time horizon. In the second chapter, we estimate natural variables and test their ability to explain the ination process for the eight countries that we consider. We use the traditional Keynesian wage-price spiral and the triangle system approaches to estimate the NAIRU and potential output. In the case of the traditional Keynesian wage-price spiral, the price Phillips curve, which can be specied as a triangle Phillips curve, features backward looking ination expectations and nominal wage ination, the output gap and supply shocks. The nominal wage Phillips curve features ination expectations and price ination and the unemployment gap. The presence of price ination in the nominal wage Phillips curve and the presence of nominal wage ination in the price Phillips curve leads to the interaction between the two Phillips curves. The separate demand pressure terms allows for their identication since, as someauthorsintheliteraturearguethatthegoodsandlabourmarketsdonot move in line with each other. To compute the NAIRU and potential output using the Keynesian approach, we rstly exploit the information contained in vector of unobservable by estimating the wage-price spiral in di⁄erence form using the Seemingly Unrelated Regression method. We use this regression method in order to control for any correlation that may exist between errors in the price and wage Phillips curves. This allows us to solve for the vector of potential output and the NAIRU. We then the moving average technique in order to avoid problems associated with the HP lter for smoothing. Due to data availability, use the MA (20) approximation of the low pass lter after padding the endpoints with forecasts from an AR(4) process. We follow a similar procedure in the estimation of the estimation of the NAIRU and potential output for the triangle system approach. To test which method produces the best natural variables, we t the gaps that are computed from the NAIRU and potential output in a simple single equation price Phillips curve. To test which specication produces the best natural varibles we use a simple single equation triangle price Phillips curve. We nd that the output gaps computed from the two competing approaches are signicantly correlated, the same applies to the unemployment gaps computed from the two approaches. We nd that the quality of unemployment rate gaps computed from the Keynesian and triangle system approach to produce similar quality of results when tted to a single equation triangle price Phillips curve. The Keynesian approach slightly outperforms the triangle systems approach in the when considering the output gap as a proxy for the demand pressure. These results indicate that the wage-price spiral still remains an important tool in the determination of the dynamics ination. In the third chapter, we analyze the relationship between monetary policy and natural variables for Australia, Canada, France, South Korea, South Africa, United Kingdom and the United States. We do this by specifying a relationship between natural rates and the real interest rate. The theoretical relationship between the two variables is positive in the case of the NAIRU and negative through Okuns law in the case of potential output. We regress the natural variable against a constant and the MA(8) of the real interest rate. We nd that the parameter of the real interest rate generally has a correct sign when considering the Keynesian approach computed NAIRUs, with only four being signicant. In the case of the triangle system approach NAIRU, we nd that the real interest rate parameter has a correct sign and signicant four countries. We nd that NAIRUs computed using di⁄erent methodologies can produce a di⁄erent reference point for policy makers. We then introduce hysteresis in the relationship between monetary policy and the NAIRU. We then nd that the interest rate parameter generally has a incorrect sign across the three approaches. The HP ltering approach which we include in our study for comparison purposes produces incorrect correlation for all the countries, while the Keynesian approach negative correlation for seven countries, and the triangle system approach in six countries. In the case of the relationship between monetary policy and potential output, we nd that the real interest rate parameter has an incorrect sign. When introducing hysteresis in the relationship between monetary policy and potential we nd that, unlike in the case of the NAIRU this plays signicant role in the relationship. ItemCompliance with labour rights and international labour standards: Implications for workplace productivity and competitiveness(2014) Samuel, MOThe common perception, particularly among employers of labour is that enforcement or implementation of enhanced labour standards would negatively impact on overhead costs thereby impeding the organisation’s competitive advantage through price mechanisms at both national and global marketplace. The purpose of this paper is to provide an analysis and draw inherent relationships between enforcement of labour standards by organisations and possible implications on workplace productivity and overall organisational efficiency, competitiveness and survival. Theorists of firm’s wage efficiency argue that implementation of enhanced labour standards will most certainly increase overhead costs and push up prices thereby disadvantaging the firm’s ability from competing favourably with other firm’s operating in territories where labour standards are not observed. However, comparative cost-benefit analysis of implementing labour standards by this paper suggests that organisations indeed benefit significantly by enforcing labour standards as this would translate to higher productivity and enhanced organisational competitiveness and survival as workers experience job satisfaction, safe and healthy working conditions and environment which reduces rate of industrial accidents, medical costs and sick leaves. Furthermore, employers benefit from implementing enhanced labour standards through low employee turnover rate and improved cooperation and understanding between workers and their employers resulting in a stable and positive labour relations environment that is devoid of unplanned work stoppages due to industrial actions and loss of production. ItemConsensual and entrepreneurial culture: Insights from organisational culture and human resource development policy in Nigerian banks(2014) Atiku, SO; Chitakunye, P; Fields, ZThis study contributes to an understanding of consensual and entrepreneurial culture in organisations within the context of communicating organisational culture through human resource policy. Given that consensual and entrepreneurial culture has the potential to shape employee attitudes and work behaviours towards the attainment of business efficiency and sustainability, this study examined the relationship between organisational culture and Human Resource (HR) development policy. Two hypotheses were formulated and tested to establish the significance of the relationship between organisational culture and HR development policy. We adopted a quantitative approach, utilising a structured questionnaire (n=305) and other documented evidence. The study used a combination of convenience sampling and simple random sampling techniques to select the respondents. The findings revealed that there is a significant relationship between organisational culture and HR development policy. It was found that consensual culture as a dimension of organisational culture has the greatest influence on HR development policy, and consequently the entrepreneurial mentality and creativity within the organisation. We conclude that there is a strong positive relationship between organisational culture and HR development policy as an antecedent of HR/organisational outcome in the Nigerian banking sector. This paper recommends that consensual and entrepreneurial cultures are crucial for business sustainability in the knowledge-based global economy. ItemCore values as drivers of entrepreneurial performance A study of SMEs in Ugandas central regionIsmail Kintu; Robert Venter ItemA critical analysis from a South African perspective of advance pricing agreements for multinational enterprises(2017) Gray, MariskaTax Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS)1 has become an epidemic of global legal tax avoidance being used by Multinational Enterprises (MNEs). BEPS has resulted in the structuring of transactions within groups of companies, with these including: transfer pricing, manipulating prices of goods, services, management fees, professional fees, royalties, interest and dividends. This study is a critical analysis of South African legislation in relation to the Double Taxation Agreement (DTA) with the United Kingdom (UK). Reference is made to the Mutual Agreement Procedure (MAP) as proposed by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).2 Even though South Africa follows the OECD guidelines (2010),3 Advance Pricing Agreements (APA) are not included in South African legislation, which may result in double non-taxation or double taxation and disputes. Recourse in the event of double taxation is examined in this research report. The application of APA legislation in the UK, as a leading tax authority,4 is analysed, as well as Davis Tax Committee recommendations in relation to Transfer Pricing. KEYWORDS Advance Pricing Agreement, Arm’s length price, Base Erosion and Profit Shifting, Davis Tax Committee, Double Taxation, Double Taxation Agreement, Multinational Enterprises, Mutual Agreement Procedure, OECD, South African Revenue Service, Transfer Pricing. 1 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). (n.d.a), ‘About BEPS and the inclusive framework’, , retrieved 5 November 2016. 2 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). (2010b), Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Administrations. Paris: OECD. 3 Supra note 2. 4 Broomberg, E. B. (2007), Tax avoidance then and now, Tax Planning Corporate and Personal, vol. 21, no. 5, pp112-118. ItemCustomer and employee-based brand equity driving United Bank for Africa's market performance(2017) Uford, Imoh CharlesWith increased competition in the banking industry, particularly in developing economies, United Bank of Africa Plc (UBA) in Nigeria has been thriving. The bank is a multinational financial services provider, which operates in 22 African countries. It also has offices in the US, UK and France. UBA has about 626 global branches and serves more than seven million retail, commercial and corporate global customers. Positioned as a pan-African bank, the UBA Group is firmly in the forefront of driving the renaissance of the African economy. It is also well positioned as a one-stop financial services institution, with growing reputation as the face of banking on the African continent. UBA Plc has grown over the years from being just a brand name to a house hold name in Nigeria. In 2011, it was reported that UBA’s total assets was worth about $12.3 billion. The bank is also gearing to be one of the dominant and leading banking brands in Africa. While the measurement of UBA’s asset worth is important as it reveals information of its financial performance, it can be more important to measure the worth of its intangible assets, which is being captured from the assessment of its brand equity. Brand equity does not only comprise of an organization’s intangible assets, but does reflect the values consumers hold of a brand and can also secure long-term commercial and competitive advantages for companies. With the notion that the value or power of a brand lies in what customers perceive in their minds concerning the brand, most studies have measured brand equity mainly from the customer-based brand equity (CBBE) perspective using Aaker’s (1996a) and Keller’s (1998) models. Aaker’s (1996a) model is however considered to be the most comprehensive CBBE model and it measures brand equity from five dimensions – brand awareness, brand association, perceived quality, brand loyalty and proprietary assets. While CBBE can secure long-term market performance, it is being recommended that the contribution of employee-based brand equity (EBBE) should also be measured. This is particularly important in the service sector, such as banking, where “what is delivered is less important than how it is delivered”. More so, with the increasing importance of internal branding, there is a need to measure EBBE, which assesses how knowledgeable, happy and committed employees are willing to deliver on the brand promises to build brand equity. v In addition to the importance of measuring both CBBE and EBBE, there is also the need to further compare the extent to which both CBBE and EBBE predict market performance, an outcome anticipated, but rarely empirically tested. This study therefore employs Aaker’s (1996) CBBE model and Kwon’s (2013) EBBE model to examine the sources of UBA’s CBBE and EBBE respectively and the extent to which each of the equities drive market performance indicators, such as consumer purchase intention, willingness to pay a price premium and brand preference. A positivist research paradigm with a quantitative survey of 182 UBA employees and 178 UBA customers were used to test the hypotheses. The relationships hypothesized in the conceptual model were empirically tested using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results indicated that the conceptual model satisfactorily fitted the data and provided reasonable explanations among variables. In terms of the relationships, it was found that UBA’s CBBE was accounted for by brand associations or image and brand loyalty. UBA’s overall CBBE positively and significantly affected all the market performance indicators of purchase intention, willingness to pay a price premium and brand preference. UBA’s EBBE which was found to be positively and significantly driven by role clarity and brand commitment could only positively and significantly predict the bank customers’ willingness to pay a price premium. Conclusively, it was found that while UBA’s EBBE make some contribution to the bank’s market performance, its CBBE is the major driver of its performance. This study theoretically contributes by not only empirically testing Aaker’s (1996b) CBBE and Kwon’s (2013) EBBE in the Nigeria’s banking sector, but by also showing how both models explain market performance. Practically, the study reveals sources of CBBE and EBBE, which not only UBA should prioritize in improving their market performance, but other service sectors in Nigeria and the continent should take special note of. Keywords: Brand equity, customer-based brand equity (CBBE), employee-based brand equity (EBBE), United Bank for Africa (UBA) Plc, market performance, structural equation modelling (SEM), consumer purchase intention, willingness to pay a price premium and brand preference ItemCustomers’ perceptions on ESKOM’s pre-paid billing system and the effects on their satisfaction and trust(2014) Chinomona, R; Sandada, MDespite the increasing awareness of the paramount importance of customer satisfaction and trust in the context of large firms, research efforts focused on the investigation of the role of electricity pre-paid system performance on customer satisfaction and trust have largely remained scant, particularly in developing countries of Southern Africa. Therefore, the primary objective of this study is to fill this void. Three research hypotheses are posited and a sample data of 151 collected from ESKOM company’ electricity pre-paid system customer is used to empirically test the hypotheses. The results of this study show that, the performance of the ESKOM prepaid billing system positively influences the customers’ satisfaction and trust in a significant way. Managerial implications of the findings are discussed and limitations and future research directions are indicated. ItemData charges, delivery dependability, geographical distance, product risk and information quallity as predictors of online purchase intention in the South African retail sector(2017) Luthuli, Menelisi MinenhleThe continuous growth of e-commerce has led to a keen interest in the uptake of online shopping. This phenomenon is even more prevalent in developed western countries. However, penetration has taken place at a lessor rate in developing countries in most parts of Africa including South Africa. Apart from infrastructural capability and adequate online store reputation, the success of online shopping fundamentally rests upon e-tailers who are able to capture consumers by understanding what variables drive them to shop online. Although several studies have explored factors that drive online purchase intention, few have explored variables of interest as done in this present study. More specifically, this sort of research is scarce within the South African general merchandise online retail sector. This study aims to determine whether data charges, delivery dependability, geographical distance, product risk and information quality have any influence on consumers‘ online purchase intention. The conceptual model adopted in this study selected data charges, delivery dependability, geographical distance, product risk and information quality as predictor variables, online shopping satisfaction and trust as mediating variables and online purchase intention as the outcome variable. This is a quantitative study whereby 20 000 online survey questionnaires were distributed to a base of two renowned South African online retailers who predominately specialize in general merchandise. Of those distributed, 924 were complete and thus deemed useable by the researcher. The findings support all eight proposed hypotheses, therefore indicating that the aforementioned variables indeed influence online purchase intention at varying levels of significance. The study seeks to contribute new contextual knowledge, adding to the existing literature linked to online retailing and to contribute new empirical and theoretical findings. The research findings highlight new insights to marketing practitioners who, with better understanding of consumer decision making theory, will be able to create strategies that can be employed to influence consumers‘ online purchase intention in the South African general merchandise online retail sector. Keywords: E-commerce, online shopping, purchase intention, general merchandise retail.