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ItemBook-to-market ratio and returns on the JSE(Taylor and Francis, 2006) Auret, CJ; Sinclaire, RAMany firm-specific attributes or characteristics are understood to be proxies for what Fama and French (1992: p428) refer to as “the unnamed sources of risk”. Perhaps the most notorious of these is the size of the firm or its market value, first documented by Banz (1981). The relationship between size and average returns has become known as the “size effect”. ItemThe influence of website content on the purchase of pharmaceutical health products(2014) Jones, L; Chiliya, NThe purpose of this research was to determine what web content, according to the perception of consumers and their purchase behaviour, are optimal for the healthcare industry and also understand which content factors are more important than others.A quantitative, single cross-sectional approach was undertaken. A convenience technique was used. Data was collected from a sample of 362 University students by means self-administered questionnaires.Regression analyses were conducted as means of data analysis. The study shows that consumers are significantly affected by the different types of content components incorporated into a webpage. Within these content components, consumers view quality information as more valuable as they are informed about products more effectively, relevant to their needs. This then influences the consumers’ information satisfaction. Once the consumer is satisfied with the information provided through the relevant content components, loyalty towards the firm is developed due to the consistent quality of the content thus, resulting in purchase behaviour. This shows that it is important for online health websites to provide relevant and quality information to in assist consumers in making an online purchase. ItemAn assessment of the effectiveness of self-service technology in a university enviroment: The case of University of the Witwatersrand(2014) Ngcwabe, Y; Chiliya, NSelf-service is basically a method of serving oneself in business-related organisation without the help of an employee. With the exponential increase of the technology, service companies adopt Self-Service Technologies (SSTs) as their innovative tools to create value. A great amount of research has focused on customers’ perspectives of adopting SSTs using factors of SST adoption, attitudes and intentions toward to use the SST. However, studies on the adoption of SSTs at University institutions particularly in South Africa has not been explored extensively. The notion of self-service is positioned as an important part of the overall system where students are to view, input and modify administrative and financial information on themselves, their work and their courses. Convenience is a major benefit of self-service technology and individuals that are not techno savvy or lack technological resources cannot reap the benefits of SSTs to its fullest potential. The study evaluates the attitudes and perceptions that students have regarding SSTs. This research consisted of a self-administered quantitative research questionnaire, which was initially tested using two pilot studies of 30 and 20 respondents respectively. The questionnaire was distributed at the University of the Witwatersrand (Wits) to a sample group of 380 respondents between the ages of 18 to 30. The data collected was analysed using statistical analysis to examine the relationships between the variables in the research model. Results indicate that some students still value face-to-face service encounters, others lack resources to use SSTs and the effect of self-efficacy limits other students from using SSTs to their fullest potential. Perceived waiting time also has a great influence on the actual use and frequency of SSTs. ItemThe influence of information quality, system quality and service quality on student’s self-efficacy at institutions of higher learning in South Africa(2014) Chinomona, RThe notion of improving student self-efficacy at institutions of higher learning has become a priority matter. There is a growing realization among institutions of higher learning that one way of achieving this, is by encouraging learners to make the best out of information technology use. It is therefore in this regards that this paper seeks to investigate the influence of information quality, system quality and service quality on student’s self-efficacy at institutions of higher learning in South Africa. To address this dearth, this study proposed three hypotheses that were validated using a sample of 271 university students in the Gauteng province. The findings indicated that there are positive relationships between the posited research variables. Managerial implications of the findings are discussed and limitations and future research directions are indicated. ItemA new probabilistic problem-solving paradigm: A conceptual critical reflection.(2014) Callaghan, CWFor Coase, organisations exist because they manage resources more efficiently than markets can. In contrast, for Grant, organisations exist because they are more efficient at integrating knowledge. Therefore, according to Grant, certain types of knowledge, such as tacit knowledge, cannot be transferred efficiently; problem solving therefore needs to be devolved to the level of the individual. Similarly, the work of Hayek and von Hippel suggests that knowledge is ‘sticky’ and cannot easily be transferred. In this paper the argument is made that a second generation of problem solving research and development management systems need to be developed; as a global system of distributed problem solving, in order to be able to deal with specific types of problems, termed ‘catastrophic events’, that may arise. ItemManaging consumer mythology: The green consumption of E10 fuel(2014) Chitakunye, P; Saruchera, F; Derera, E; Tarkhar-Lail, AThe purpose of this article is to explore how myths become meaningful to consumers of ethanol-blended petrol (E10) in Zimbabwe. The last decade has seen the emergence and increasing significance of being green. Consequently, green consumption has become a topic of increasing significance amongst consumers and scholars. This study adopted a multiplemethod research strategy, that included 32 key informant in-depth interviews, and 150 questionnaires completed by ordinary consumers. The study unpacks how myths can be used as a symbol of resistance where there is a wide range of product choice. We find that the market acceptance of Zimbabwe’s E10 remained pessimistic, yet elsewhere in the world, the same blend has been packaged as a ‘premium, super brand’. Drawing from the findings, we argue that consumers engage with myths in their everyday lives, and the meanings associated with myths are transferred to the ‘green fuel’ brands. Although the consumption of E10 fuel is important to the maintenance of a green society, it should be understood that there are consumer misconceptions ranging from technical fuel composition, engine compatibility, mixed pricing perceptions and policy-related issues. Revealing how E10 fuel has been a success story in other countries, our study demonstrates how marketing education can be employed to create awareness of the benefits for consuming green fuel. Our findings also reveal how myths slowly die a natural death when product choice becomes limited. These findings contribute to an understanding of how consumer misconceptions about a product or service can impact product image and sales. ItemConsensual and entrepreneurial culture: Insights from organisational culture and human resource development policy in Nigerian banks(2014) Atiku, SO; Chitakunye, P; Fields, ZThis study contributes to an understanding of consensual and entrepreneurial culture in organisations within the context of communicating organisational culture through human resource policy. Given that consensual and entrepreneurial culture has the potential to shape employee attitudes and work behaviours towards the attainment of business efficiency and sustainability, this study examined the relationship between organisational culture and Human Resource (HR) development policy. Two hypotheses were formulated and tested to establish the significance of the relationship between organisational culture and HR development policy. We adopted a quantitative approach, utilising a structured questionnaire (n=305) and other documented evidence. The study used a combination of convenience sampling and simple random sampling techniques to select the respondents. The findings revealed that there is a significant relationship between organisational culture and HR development policy. It was found that consensual culture as a dimension of organisational culture has the greatest influence on HR development policy, and consequently the entrepreneurial mentality and creativity within the organisation. We conclude that there is a strong positive relationship between organisational culture and HR development policy as an antecedent of HR/organisational outcome in the Nigerian banking sector. This paper recommends that consensual and entrepreneurial cultures are crucial for business sustainability in the knowledge-based global economy. ItemAn exploratory perspective of student performance and access to resources.(2014) Papageorgiou, E; Callaghan, CWThis research investigated the relationships between potential constraints to students’ access to technological resources and student academic performance. Longitudinal data from 2010 (n=228), 2011 (n=340) and 2012 (n=347) from South African accounting students was used to test the relationships between technological resources access and student academic performance using correlation analysis, multiple linear regression analysis and factor analysis. Access to the latest software was found to be associated with student academic performance; a ‘digital divide’ between students may influence their academic performance. This research specifically identifies certain constraints potentially associated with a ‘digital divide’ that may influence student performance. ItemCall centre job differences(2014) Jansen, A; Callaghan, CWThis research tested theory that predicted differences in the relationships between perceptions of management, satisfaction and performance by call centre job type. A sample of a hundred and ninety respondents was drawn from South African call centres. Findings suggest that outbound call centre agents are significantly more job dissatisfied than inbound agents, along certain dimensions. Outbound agents, sales agents and after service agents were found to rate their performance quality significantly lower than the rest of the cohort; in contrast, inbound agents and customer queries agents were found to rate their performance more highly. On the basis of the findings it is argued that assumptions of homogeneity in call centre work is problematic. It is recommended that different management strategies be built around different types of call centre work, that are responsive to the needs of those engaged in each type of work. It is also recommended that job enrichment be applied to all types of call centre work to potentially increase variability in tasks, which might increase autonomy and job satisfaction in this type of work. ItemDetermining the Feasibility of adopting technological innovation to enhance service delivery in selected Johannesburg health institutions(2014) Uta, L; Chiliya, N; Chuchu, TSouth African health institutions, particularly public hospitals are continuously oversubscribed and under-resourced which consequently puts pressure on the service delivery system and negatively affects the service experience of patients. As a way to address this problem, the researchers were looking to establish the feasibility of adopting technological innovation such as Customer Relationship Management (CRM) systems, cloud computing and web-applications in order to help enhance service delivery in Johannesburg health institutions. The researchers conducted a quantitative research and collected data from two public health institutions namely Charlotte Maxeke and Helen Joseph Hospital. An initial pilot study was conducted before the research was extended to a wider sample of 358 respondents. Results show that most patients generally have a positive perception on technology and are likely to consider making use technological-innovation provided they are relatively easy to use, accessible and not too complex. Results also suggest that security is a highly regarded factor that ultimately determines system-usage and technological acceptance. Technological innovations such as CRM systems, may go a long way in enhancing interaction between patients and health institutions which ultimately would result in the creation of more sustainable relationships between patients and health institutions. However in order to ensure that there is wide adoption of technologicalinnovation, it is essential for health institutions to ensure that the new innovations are easy to use and patient information is kept in a secure environment. ItemMobile TV as a marketing tool in South Africa: A consumer’s perspective(2014) Chuchu, T; Chiliya, N; Uta, LMobile Television is highly considered to be the next breakthrough application in wireless technology. Recently mobile marketing has become an important method of communication with the recent advances in mobile phone technology. The primary objective of the study was to find solutions that could possibly increase the number of mobile TV subscribers in South Africa so as to increase mobile TV usefulness as a marketing tool for products and services. The design of the study was a quantitative design. This research involved distributing a questionnaire at The University of The Witwatersrand to a sample group of 380 students between the ages of 18 to 25. The data collected was analysed using Statistical Analysis Software (SAS) Enterprise Guide 5.The results of the empirical study indicated that size of screens being too small was a major concern for mobile TV viewers and would make viewers less likely consider viewing mobile TV. ItemAchievement of organisational goals and motivation of middle level managers within the context of the two-factor theory(2014) Jansen, A; Samuel, MOThe ever dynamic nature of the world of work requires that organisations constantly review factors that energise managers (particularly middle level managers) towards achievement of set goals. This category of employees translates strategic decisions by top management into action through the operational employees. They (middle level managers) therefore serve as a link between top management and the lower level employees thus making their role to be of outmost importance to the survival and competitiveness of any organisation thus necessitating the need of our present study. The study adopted a survey research method using quantitative research design. A measuring instrument with a Cronbach alpha coefficient of above 0.70 was developed and used to collect primary data. Non-random sampling technique using purposive/convenience sampling procedure was employed in deriving a sample size of 250 middle-level managers who participated in the survey. Main hypotheses were formulated and tested using the Chi-Square test to determine the level of association between intrinsic and extrinsic motivational variables and achievement of organisational goals by middle level managers. Results show that both intrinsic and extrinsic motivational variables impacted significantly on achievement of organisational goals by this category of managers. Based on this finding, we therefore recommend that organisations should combine both intrinsic and extrinsic motivational variables in the design of goal achievement strategy for middle level managers. ItemA selected history of South African inflation perceptions: The question matters(2014) Rossouw, J; Bosch, A; Padayachee, VThis paper provides a selected historical overview of inflation perception surveys undertaken in South Africa between 2006 and 2010 with a view to assessing the nature of the link between inflation perceptions and inflation expectations in the latest 2012 survey. These surveys are undertaken to assess the perceptions of respondents on the degree in which historic inflation figures reflect perceptions of actual inflation, and to find some link to inflation expectations. All the earlier pilot studies on inflation perceptions and the representative samples undertaken between 2006 and 2010 (in total six pilot studies, three representative samples and one survey among central bank employees) failed to show any link between inflation perceptions and inflation expectations. These findings cast some doubt on the premise that a policy of inflation targeting anchors inflation expectations in the current rate of inflation and therefore in the announced inflation target policy rate. In response to the earlier survey results, the question on inflation perceptions was put in different ways to respondents in the most-recent (2012) inflation perception survey to retest the hypothesis that inflation perceptions and inflation expectations are linked. The findings of this survey are analysed in this paper. These findings show a possible link to inflation expectations, and will be the subject of further research. The conclusion on the assessment of inflation perceptions is that the question matters. ItemMobile money as a strategy for financial inclusion in rural communities(2014) Thulani; Chitakunye, P; Chummun, BZThis study contributes to a deeper understanding of the usage level of mobile money, and how it has accelerated financial inclusion among the rural communities in an emerging economy such as Zimbabwe. The study employed a mixed methods approach and a concurrent dominant status design where quantitative and qualitative approaches were concurrently used with the quantitative approach having a dominant status. The study was carried out in the Midlands Province and a simple random sampling technique was applied to select the province. Eight districts in the province formed the study population of 262 493 households and a pilot sample size of 37 household was chosen. The study used a survey method to collect data, where a questionnaire and focus group discussions were used as the main data collection instruments. It emerged that the usage of mobile money by the unbanked rural people is very high, especially for sending and receiving remittances. However the saving and loan aspect of mobile money were not very popular. Users were still relying on their traditional methods of savings and borrowing. The implications are that the service providers need to increase their awareness programs targeting this specific market to encourage them to migrate from traditional ways to safe and secure way of saving their meagre income. More so, that their saving patterns will determine their access to loans. ItemDoes customer satisfaction lead to customer trust, loyalty and repurchase intention of local store brands? The case of Gauteng Province of South Africa(2014) Chinomona, R; Dubihlela, DNotwithstanding the increasing researches on consumer behaviour, there is a dearth of studies that have investigated the influence of customer satisfaction on customer trust, loyalty and repurchase intention in the African retailing context. Therefore, using a data set of 151 from retailers in Gauteng Province of South Africa, this study examines these relationships. All the posited five hypotheses are supported. The results indicate that the relationship between customer satisfaction and their trust, customer satisfaction and their loyalty, customer trust and their loyalty, customer loyalty and their repurchase intention and customer trust and their repurchase intention are positive in a significant way. The research paper discusses both academic and managerial implications of the results and future research directions are suggested. ItemDoctoral and Masters Supervision: The potential role of self-efficacy(2014) Callaghan, CWThis research investigated the potential contribution of self-efficacy and different forms of experience to the numbers of sucessful doctoral and masters degree supervisions of academics. Using a comprehensive purposive sampling procedure, academics at a large South African higher educational institution were sampled; 225 responses were received. Spearman Rho tests of association, Pearson partial correlation analysis, and hierarchical regression analysis were used to test the relationships between different types of self-efficacy, together with different forms of experience, and measures of doctoral and masters degree supervisions. Findings suggest that self-efficacy accounts for variance in doctoral and masters degree supervisions over and above the contribution of years of experience as a researcher, job satisfaction, gender and the number of people reporting to an individual. However, the effect of self-efficacy might only be significant up and until the point that an individual gains sufficient supervisory experience, of one form or the other (doctoral or masters degree supervision). Male academics are found to supervise more doctoral students. Individuals that supervise more doctoral students are found to have significantly higher levels of self-efficacy relating to statistical analysis. ItemCompliance with labour rights and international labour standards: Implications for workplace productivity and competitiveness(2014) Samuel, MOThe common perception, particularly among employers of labour is that enforcement or implementation of enhanced labour standards would negatively impact on overhead costs thereby impeding the organisation’s competitive advantage through price mechanisms at both national and global marketplace. The purpose of this paper is to provide an analysis and draw inherent relationships between enforcement of labour standards by organisations and possible implications on workplace productivity and overall organisational efficiency, competitiveness and survival. Theorists of firm’s wage efficiency argue that implementation of enhanced labour standards will most certainly increase overhead costs and push up prices thereby disadvantaging the firm’s ability from competing favourably with other firm’s operating in territories where labour standards are not observed. However, comparative cost-benefit analysis of implementing labour standards by this paper suggests that organisations indeed benefit significantly by enforcing labour standards as this would translate to higher productivity and enhanced organisational competitiveness and survival as workers experience job satisfaction, safe and healthy working conditions and environment which reduces rate of industrial accidents, medical costs and sick leaves. Furthermore, employers benefit from implementing enhanced labour standards through low employee turnover rate and improved cooperation and understanding between workers and their employers resulting in a stable and positive labour relations environment that is devoid of unplanned work stoppages due to industrial actions and loss of production. ItemMobile banking applications: Consumer behaviour, acceptance and adoption strategies in Johannesburg, South Africa (RSA)(2014) Balabanoff, GAThere has been a complete disparity in the number of cell phone subscribers when compared to fixed line users in South Africa (referred to as Republic of RSA or RSA). In 2011, results revealed that 29 million South Africans use mobile phones compared to only 5 million using fixed lines (Brown, Cajee, Davies, & Stroebel,2003; Lascaris,2012). It is because of this increased and saturated mobile market that we have seen the extreme growth of mobile applications. This increase is coupled with several benefits that mobile applications bring to the consumer, such as increased functionality, productivity improvements and entertainment (Pranata, Athauda, & Skinner, 2013). Although adoption strategies around internet banking and cell phone banking have been explored in various parts of the world, adoption strategies specifically around mobile banking applications or "mbapps" have not been vastly researched (Jaruwachirathanakul & Fink, 2005). As such, this study focused on examining consumer behaviour and acceptance towards adopting mbapps in Johannesburg RSA, where mbapps are in an emerging phase, but offer potential benefits to both consumers and industry at large. A quantitative research methodology was used for this research. Self-administered quantitative questionnaires were distributed at the University of Witwatersrand as well as to individuals within the Johannesburg area aged between 18 and 60 years. A pilot study of 30 respondents was conducted to ensure validity and reliability of the questionnaire. Following this, the research was then conducted to a sample size of 373 respondents. Due to time constraints, this study made use of convenience sampling. Data collected from the questionnaires was analysed using statistical analysis to investigate the relationship between the variables used in the research model, this being a modified version of the Decomposed Theory of Planned Behaviour model – The decomposed TPB model is successful in predicting and explaining human behaviour across various platforms and breaking outcomes down into specific dimensions. In addition, the decomposed TPB model is most suitable for steering decision makers towards the implementation of innovations. The decomposed TPB model will provide insight into understanding consumers’individual attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control, which ultimately influences the likelihood of consumers using mbapps. From the findings, it can be concluded that the results of this study support the proposed conceptual model. The findings of this research, which was focused towards, Attitude, Perceived Behavioural Control and Subjective Norms do have a significant relationship on the intention to adopt mbapps. In terms of the hypotheses set and tested, all resulted as postulated. In conclusion to this study the contribution of this research provides the banking industry, marketers and academics with the factors that encourage consumers to adopt mbapps and to utilise the research to exploit the conversion rate of customers towards adopting mbapps. Lastly this study adds value to not only the RSA market but potentially to other developing and developed countries through the recommendations made in chapter 5. Decision makers are advised to take heed of the proposed strategies in maximising the rate of mbapps adoption ItemAn exploratory study on the marketing strategies adopted by small micro and medium enterprises in Johannesburg Central Business District(2014) Mapila, K; Chiliya, N; Chiliya, WOver the years marketing theory development has been limited and small enterprises often have to rely on marketing models used in big businesses. There are a number of marketing strategies that are currently applied by large companies in South Africa which cannot be implemented by small retailers. This is because of the complexity of some of the marketing strategies alluded above are not suited to small retailers because of their limited educational background and resources. Facing the problem of intense competition, SMME entrepreneurs often have to rely on price and other short term strategies to market and sell their products to the ultimate consumer. Entrepreneurs are constantly faced with challenges that restrict their productivity and economic potential. SMMEs face the challenge of marketing their products and services properly to the right markets in order to get returns from their investments. The data for the study was collected by means of interviews. The study used a judgemental sampling. Findings from the study prove that entrepreneurs rely on word of mouth, reducing prices and other low cost promotional strategies for marketing and sale purposes. The findings indicate that it might be useful for SMME’s to change their promotional strategies to suit the South African consumer market to ensure long term profitability ItemOrganisational support and its influence on teachers job satisfaction and job performance in Limpopo province of South Africa(2014) Chinomona, RThe importance of organisational support is increasingly being recognized because of its potential positive influence on employee performance. However, studies that seek to investigate the influence of organisational support on the teachers’ job satisfaction and consequently their workplace performance at high school level have largely remained scant, particularly in developing countries of Southern Africa. Therefore, the primary objective of this study is to fill this void. Three research hypotheses are posited and a sample data of 162 collected from the Limpopo Province of South Africa is used to empirically test the hypotheses. The results of this study show that, organisational support positively influences teachers’job satisfaction and their job performance. Managerial implications of the findings are discussed and limitations and future research directions are indicated.