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ItemAn evaluation of the applicability of the extended situational leadership model to lower level management in the South African construction industry(University of the Witwatersrand, 1990-08-10) Cocotos, GeorgeThe vast majority of theories and models that have been developed around the concept of leadership have been conceptualized, and tested in the USA and other countries outside South Africa as discussed in the literature survey, Chapter 2 of this dissertation). Furthermore, the models developed have largely been theoretical models aimed to help leaders only to identify the most appropriate leadership style to use. None have however attempted to develop a model that leaders can use to implement the most appropriate leadership style once it has been chosen. Consequently, A D Jaff, using the most integrated and recently developed Situational Leadership Theory and Mode 1 of Hersey and Blanchard as a data base, developed the first leadership implementation model - The Extended Situational Leadership Model. Since AD Jaff's implementation model is a combination of various other leadership mode ls and theories, in order to fully understand the development of the Extended SL Model, all the relevant models are researched in this dissertation (see Chapter 2). This dissertation attempts to test the applicability of the Extended SL Model in a practical construction environment in South Africa. It further attempts to make adaptations to the model where relevant, after testing its performance value through the administration of 3 questionnaires to a sample of potential/practising black leaders (on-site construction managers). (This lS surveyed in Chapters 3 to 6 of this dissertation). The objective of this dissertation is therefore to attempt to test, and where necessary, to adapt AD Jaff's Extended SL Model so that : 1) this theoretical model may be implemented practically in a South African construction working environment (i.e. to prove that the mode 1 does work in practice) ( see Chapter 4). and to test whether 2) the adapted mode 1 is applicable for the training of future black Low-Level leaders in the South African construction environment. The adapted form of the model will, I believe, prove to be a useful tool for the training of black leaders within the South African construction organisations, where the volatile industry and changing economic and political environment of South Africa with ensure the emergence of black South African Low Level leaders in the construction industry in the near future. ItemHow Rapid Urbanisation, Neighbourhood Management Affects Living Conditions. A Survey of Agege Local Government Area, Lagos, Nigeria(Canadian Center of Science and Education, 2014-11-23) Ijasan1, K.C.; Ogunro, V. O.This paper explores the issues around urbanisation, neighbourhood degeneration and its effects on the living condition on the residents of Agege area of Lagos, Nigeria. This paper traces the historical background of the area, examines the meaning of neighbourhood degeneration and explores factors responsible for neighbourhood degeneration. The paper adopts quantitative data collection strategies of investigation, and compares these with past literature on the issue. From the survey of 120 households in the area, the study realized street hooliganism; destitution, bad roads and considerable inequality in the distribution of wealth as the greatest problems in the area. It concluded on the need for holistic approach by government to fast-track housing conditions improvement in the entire areas. Moreover, the redevelopment of the area needs to be community-led participatory planning where all stakeholders harness ideas that can be used to improve the present situation of the area. ItemInvestigating the impact of prefabrication of floor structures on construction waste minimization(University of Witwatersrand, 2016-10) Msibi, Thapelo; Baloyi, Tlangelani; Seedat, ZaeemConstruction and Demolition waste is a phenomenon that is a global challenge and the Construction Industry has been classified as one of the largest waste producers worldwide. This waste in South Africa is negatively affecting the economy and environment. The literature study reveals the negative impacts of poor construction waste management but however, the prefabrication method of construction as the means to minimize waste is regarded by researchers as the most efficient and effective method to reduce waste generation in the construction industry. For the first part of this study, it focuses only on material construction waste rather than including time and cost waste. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate whether prefabricated materials can reduce the generation of construction waste as compared to traditional method of construction. For the second part of the study, a quantitative research method, using an online survey, sub-factors of main origins of waste are evaluated. Their contribution to construction waste generation will be rated for both sectors; traditional construction and prefabrication method of construction. The results consequently demonstrate “by how much prefabricated materials can reduce waste generation” and which factors are mainly responsible for the production of waste in construction projects ItemTeaching BIM in schools of architecture of South African universities(University of Witwatersrand, 2016-10) Moodley, Vidhyan; Mathye, Kurhula; Radebe, SimphiweIt is anticipated that Building Information Technology (BIM) will lead to changes in the performance of professionals in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry. However according to Goedert and Meadati (2008) full implementation of BIM in the construction industry has not yet been achieved, this is a problem as the industry does not have sufficient professionals that are BIM competent. The findings by Booyens et al. (2013) indicates it is quite clear that different companies recognize the necessity of keeping up to date with new technology and this is why they implement BIM technologies and processes in their companies and are requiring BIM competent employees. Students that are not BIM competent by the end of their studies are put at a disadvantage. It is therefore essential for the emerging professionals to take cognisance of and understand BIM technologies and related practices while undertaking studies at an academic institution (Santos, 2010). Teaching BIM to students entering the AEC industry at a tertiary level will help ensure that they are sufficiently equipped to address the problems that the South African AEC industry is currently facing. This study aims to investigate the current BIM education status, the pedagogies used and the challenges faced when incorporating BIM into the curriculum, within the Schools of Architecture in South African Universities (Gauteng region). ItemLevel of use of BIM in the architectural sector of the South African industry(University of the Witwatersrand, School of Construction Economics and Management, 2016-10) Moraba, Mmanoko; Oni, Ifeoluwapo; Ngwenyama, SibonisileThis research therefore aims to provide a BoK (Body of Knowledge) and understanding of the level of use and maturity level of BIM in the architectural sector of the South African construction industry. This will be executed by first reviewing the Body of Knowledge already available on BIM, both in South Africa and other parts of the world, as well as literature available on measuring BIM maturity levels or the level of use of BIM in other parts of the world. This will form a basis for investigating level of use of BIM and understanding the maturity level of BIM in South Africa, from which a report will be drafted providing some evidence and an understanding of the level of use of BIM in the South African architectural sector. ItemQuantification of waste streams arising from demolition projects(University of Witwatersrand, 2016-10) Makgopa, Ramosomedi; Masemola, Refilwe; Rambuwani, PhuluphedzisoConstruction and demolition waste has a major effect on the environment. The construction sector generates a variety of waste. The amount and the type of which is determined by the specific construction activities on site and the design and specification of buildings taking place (Begum A., Siwat C., Pereira J., and Jaafar A., 2007). This research is important since it will assist the construction industry to be aware of the waste material that needs to be recycled and reused and potentially deriving economic benefit from the waste streams avoiding dumping the waste into landfill. Construction and demolition projects produce massive amounts of waste and this waste pollutes the environment. Much of this construction waste may also end up dumped illegally or in landfill and which incurs high treatment cost (Jingkuang, L., Yousong, W. and Yiyong, L., 2012). The sub problems that need to be addressed by this research are the environmental problems, management waste process and waste stream and quantification. For this research, we will be looking at the different types of waste, quantification of waste and business viability of waste processing. ItemDrones in construction: a tool to measure progress(University of Witwatersrand, 2016-10) Mkansi, Nkhesani; Ramsamy, Noelle; Laher, YahyaAt first, drones were commonly associated with military tactics used by the US government. Today, its array of uses has lead the flying machine’s popularity to grow exponentially. The use of drones vary from life guards using the drone to monitor beach-goers to the next-level ‘selfie-stick’. Commercially drones have captured the attention of companies looking for innovative solutions. Amazon.com is currently looking to employ drones as delivery vehicle. In construction, drones are used to monitor workers on site. In this research, we seek to explore the use of drones as a tool to measure progress ItemInvestigating quality in construction in the residential sector around the Gauteng region(University of Witwatersrand, 2016-10) Mulla, Mohamed; Crossman, Richard; Nyalunga, SikhulileAccording to the Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB), quality in the residential sector in South Africa is the least satisfactory among all sectors. It is therefore important to research further into this sector to establish the current state of quality and factors that affect it from homeowner’s perspective. The key purpose of this study is therefore to investigate the level and factors that affect the quality of construction in recently developed (in the 12 last years) private estates in Johannesburg, South Africa. Literature was used to determine factors that affect quality in residential properties. These factors were then used to design a questionnaire that helped to determine the level of quality in estates in the Johannesburg region. Quality has been found to be of a satisfactory level however some notable points were raised from respondents regarding some underperforming aspects. These factors are floor finishes, running costs, outside area of the home, general aesthetics of the home, ambient temperature, natural lighting, parking area, air conditioning and delays in construction These factors are analyzed and recommendations for future studies have been made. ItemInvestigating gender sensitivity regarding health and safety provisions within the South African construction industry(University of Witwatersrand, 2016-10) Jameson, Destiny; Wray, Kathryn; Moolla, RiyaadhThe purpose of this research report was to investigate the extent to which current health and safety provisions are inadequate in gender sensitivity, and whether this increases the vulnerability of women leading to incidents and long term health implications on South African construction sites. Factors affecting women’s health and safety were analysed and possible recommendations on how to remedy and improve these factors were made. This research provided a platform for both female operative and managers on site to express their perspectives and factual experience regarding issues on site, with particular attention paid to the availability and adequacy of PPE and sanitary facilities and the provisions, both locally and internationally, that govern these. The physical and, perhaps to a lesser extent, psychological consequences of these health and safety concerns are explored in our research. The research design adopted was that of a positivist research philosophy, which utilised a mixed methodology approach and incorporated the usage of two instruments namely; a semistructured questionnaire, utilising both open and closed-ended questions, aimed at female site operatives and, secondly, interviews aimed at managerial personnel of the corresponding construction sites. In particular, 32 female site operatives participated in the study and a further 6 managerial personnel. Field data collection was limited to construction sites within the Johannesburg region and encompassed both commercial building sites and civil. ItemThe effectiveness of construction management in improving labour productivity(University of Witwatersrand, 2016-10) Mayet, Uzair; Phakathi, Sidumo; Lelosa, JeremiaManagement is one of the major key performance indicators that influence labour productivity of construction projects. Mismanagement of construction activities leads to poor construction labour productivity which has a negative impact on a project’s time, cost and quality. The aim of this study is to investigate management factors that have an influence on construction labour productivity and also provide measures that can help improve labour productivity in the South African construction industry. The research instrument adopted in this research is a survey utilising a questionnaire that consists of sub categories of factors that influence construction management. The sampling plan that was adopted during this research study is a purposive sampling technique. The questionnaire survey involves distributing an online questionnaire to construction managers that are “professionally” accredited to the South African Council for Project and Construction Management Professions (SACPCMP). A likert scale was used to rank the results of the fifty-eight valid responses. The top three main factors that were found to be most effective in improving construction labour productivity were communication, planning and scheduling and motivation. The researchers then recommended a productivity management framework in order to measure and improve labour productivity. Further research can be done to improve the framework by considering the perceptions other site orientated construction professionals and relevant stakeholders. ItemInvestigating how ICT affects the performance of geographically dispersed construction project teams within South Africa(University of Witwatersrand, 2016-10) Cele, Sibhekiwe; Mashao, Morongwa; Mokoka, WilheminahThis study examines how information and communication technology (ICT) affects the performance of geographically dispersed construction project teams within South Africa. It focuses on how project team dispersion due to the geographic separation of the project location from the construction teams’ primary facility affects performance and how the project teams make use of information communication technology (ICT) to address the challenge of executing the project. This will be done by looking at the means in which the ICT is used, the seven ICT perspectives and how they are applicable to the project teams, the processes and mechanisms in place to deal with the communication requirements to performance and, as such, attempt to measure the perceived performance of the construction project teams. The mixed method research methodology is adopted in the study in order to fulfill its objectives that span the collection of primary and secondary data. The limitation of the study is that data collection is limited to addressing and questioning potential respondents only within the in the Gauteng province - predominately in Johannesburg, South Africa. As a result, findings from this study cannot be freely generalized beyond the Metropolitan or provincial sample group. Nonetheless, the findings will form a basis for a future research. Undertaking this study will shed light to project parties about the importance of incorporating information communication technology processes to manage and alleviate the challenges faced with handling the performance of geographically dispersed construction project teams. ItemSustainability in project management in the South African context(University of Witwatersrand, 2016-10) Chothia, Tasmiyah; Booi, Zanoxolo; Madonsela, NikiweThe research study is commissioned to analyse the application of sustainability in project management, with particular reference to the difficulties experienced when applying sustainability into project management that affect the goal of achieving project management and sustainability in South African construction projects. Global warming is considered to be a worldwide concern and the construction industry has been concerning itself with the concept of sustainability in order to minimise their impact on the environment, the resources and their contribution towards global warming. Implementing sustainability into the construction project process assists in reducing these impacts, however there are a range of challenges due to the change from the traditional way of constructing and managing the project. As a result, project managers are faced with difficulties when implementing sustainability into their project management practices which has an impact on their objectives. The study has adopted a mix method research methodology by using both primary and secondary sources in order to achieve its aim and objectives with a limitation to the primary data being information collected only from professional project managers within South Africa. This research uses an inductive approach to collect qualitative data. The study comprised of the collection of data from formulated questions that were in line with the findings of the literature brought to the South African context as well as questions against what the literature was not able to provide for. These questions were presented in the form of an online questionnaire as a survey to a drawn sample of construction project managers registered with the South African Council for Project and Construction Management Professions. The research reports on the data collected from eighty-nine participants with and without sustainable building experience in order to obtain the experienced and the perceived to be experienced challenges. After this process, the data was analyzed through the use of categorization of data and graphs to compare data collected. The findings from this study reveal the significant challenges experienced by project managers when implementing sustainability into their practice. Similarities between what the literature says and what the South African respondents stated were found. ItemKnowledge and skills transfer between emerging and established contractors(University of Witwatersrand, 2016-10) Ajusi, Brenda; Melamu, Mamoji; Mkhulisi, NoxoloEmerging contractors in the South African construction industry, owned and managed by HDIs, lack the knowledge and skills to develop into sustainable businesses; underlying most factors, contributing to the hindrance of growth and development among emerging contractors, is a general lack of knowledge. (Martin, 2010) A study by Martin 2010 was conducted where insight to interactions between emerging and established contractors was provided. Despite the transfer of knowledge however, concern remains over the ability of emerging contractors to develop. This research determines the progress of the respondents previously surveyed by Martin 2010 in order to analyse the effect of skills and knowledge transfer between emerging and established contractors. An electronic survey is conducted, the results of which are used to deduce the degree to which the emerging contractor has progressed as a result of skills and knowledge transfer, as well as the interaction with emerging contractors yielding the most effective transfer of skills and knowledge. ItemProject management practice(University of Witwatersrand, 2016-10) Cele, Nqobile; Mathye, Risana; Mlimi, PerseveranceEffective delivery of project that meet clients’ satisfaction is a fundamental to develop and sustain a health, profession and a competitive construction market. The aim of the research study is to investigate how construction project management tools and techniques can be effectively project managers to improve project performance in order to achieve client satisfaction. The paper addresses the challenges which the construction industry faces which results in project overrun, financial loss and overall performance of the project. These challenges are addressed through the effectiveness application of project management tools and techniques. This is mainly because project managers are the client's representative and they are key roles in delivering successful projects. The study adopted the pragmatic research design philosophy; it uses mixed methods which is both qualitative and quantitative. Data collection will be conducted through a survey (questionnaire) and structured interviews as the strategy of the research. Cross-sectional time horizon is the most suitable horizon we can possibly use on this research because the research is being done on a particular time. The study comprises of three limitations, Project management practices vary across countries. The limitation is that PMBOK has a universal application that needs to be contextualized. Client satisfaction is subjective, so difficult to measure. Therefore, in this research study it will be limited to the performance of the final product. The nature of the construction industry is fragmented and dynamic. This poses an unending challenge for the project managers. Overall, the study discusses the variables in relation to the objectives of the study. ItemInvestigating collaborative procurement processes in green buildings(University of Witwatersrand, 2016-10) Mohale, Lerato; Mamathuba, Mulalo; Mochalibane, BontleIt has been acknowledged and appreciated on a global scale how climate change has direct negative effects on the environment, economy and society as a whole. The construction industry’s response to this is the introduction of green buildings. However, green innovations are far from becoming customary due to insufficient knowledge in the implementation of procurement processes. The use of a dominating default method known as traditional procurement practice is being implemented which hinders successful project delivery as it neglects the collaborative intensive nature of green buildings. The aim of the study is to determine the changes that occur in the procurement processes of green building at Wits University, to establish the most suitable process that is aligned with achieving high performance through project delivery. The study adopted a qualitative research approach suited for exploratory research where the nature of a problem is being investigated. A total of three project participants including the project manager, contractor and quantity surveyor involved in the erection of New John Moffat Building, Maths Building and Wits Science Stadium participated in the study. Open-ended interviews were used to explore the nature of collaborative procurement processes adopted during the lifecycle of each building. The use of framework agreements fostered collaborative practices as they were deemed suitable for green buildings. As much as we are unable to conclude that traditional procurement is inadequate for green buildings, we were able to establish that when incorporating green elements into a structure, traditional procurement does not sufficiently conform to sustainability parameters. ItemThe implementation of Building Information Modelling (BIM) in facilities management stage of a building project(University of Witwatersrand, 2016-11) Mashita, Phuti; Mohamed, Mubeen; Manjra, Mohammed SaalimBIM is ‘new’ in South Africa and there are signs of BIM to be growing in the adoption and implementation by Facilities Management firms. BIM offers Facilities Managers with access to greater dimensional views of the building as well as ease of access to identifying components due for maintenance. The implementation of BIM by Facilities managers is slow due to the three keys barriers which are cost, skills and knowledge. It has also been found that there is a lack of knowledge with regards to BIM as well as insufficient skilled individuals to carry out BIM effectively. Firms are aware of the benefits of the implementation of BIM which can be used to solve the problems faced by Facilities Managers such as access to pivotal information which can be used for operations and maintenance. ItemThe impact of obsolescence in health public private partnership projects(International Structural Engineering Construction Conference (ISEC), 2017) Khatleli, NthatisiObsolescence is a major challenge in Infrastructure implementation around the world. South Africa has been implementing PPPs close to 20 years now and some of the first projects will soon come to closure as the end of their term is drawing nigh. Obsolescence is generally mitigated by stipulating that there should be a general overhaul of the facility very close to the end of term in order to preserve and elongate the economic life of the project. However, the health projects are very much dependent on the ever-changing technological developments for their optimal performance. Some of the new technological equipment might require infrastructural adaptations. Through interviewing designers, managers and clients the research sought to garner information that could be helpful for future projects in this sector and that could be adapted to other sectors as well. Although it was found that obsolescence was not properly catered for, the experiences of the aforementioned respondents were valuable in proposing general considerations in future projects. It is hoped that lessons will be instructive and beneficial to the other countries which are new to the PPP procurement method, especially when it comes to the implementation of the health facilities. ItemCorporate final nodal destination choices in the exodus from Johannesburg Central Business District(International Structural Engineering Construction Conference (ISEC) Press, 2017) Khatleli, NthatisiThe opening up of the invisible barriers after the fall of apartheid in South Africa led to massive internal migrations and relocations to bigger cities. Johannesburg as the biggest economic hub not only in South Africa but in Africa, pulled the majority of the new opportunity seekers from across the Africa continent. This uncontrolled influx led to overcrowding, increased crime and grime in the city center of Johannesburg. The loss of value of property in this part of the city led to a lot of corporate organizations relocating to budding economic nodes in and around Johannesburg. The study seeks to understand the processes that were applied in deciding the suitable new Headquarters for these blue chip companies. The new nodes that accommodated the new relocators have over time assumed identities of their own in terms of the type of companies that are mostly found in these areas. Although these identity nuances are not pronounced at first glance, they are accentuated with greater scrutiny. The study sought to see if there is a fit between the independent observation of the characteristics of these locations and the perceived attractors to the blue chip firms. This was achieved by interviewing the executives of these companies and sending emails to some in order to understand the processes and triggers affecting their decisions. It was generally observed that prestige and locational characteristics that complemented the company’s ethos were the overriding triggers in deciding on the final nodal destination.