ItemA Search for Progressive Street Trading Management Model: Understanding the Principles of the Park Station Street Trading Management Model(2014) Lande, KwandaBoth national and local governments in parts of the global South have started to realise the importance of the informal economy in poverty alleviation. In these countries there is a growing government desire to develop informal trading policy frameworks and strategies that will not hinder the potential of the informal economy for economic growth. This is, however, often let down by varying implementation challenges. This research has focused on one specific pilot model for managing street trading around Park Station Inner city Johannesburg, a model in the making in its principles and implementation process, to investigate the extent through which its principles can be said to be progressive. This pilot model, Park Station Street Trading Management Model (PSSTMM), is set up by an alliance between a business coalition, the Central Johannesburg Partnership (CJP), and a street trading organisation, South African National Traders Retail Alliance (SANTRA). This research has documented principles and a principle renegotiation process of the PSSTMM through interviews, action research and observation that involved different stakeholders of the PSSTMM. Furthermore, as part of action research investigation of what is currently happening in the area of study in relation to street trading which were done for this research were used in the principle renegotiation process. Through this investigation the PSSTMM has shifted from only accommodating SANTRA members, a principle that existed prior to the principle renegotiation process, to accommodating all existing traders, if it happens that a design plan allow this to happen. The PSSTMM also provide support in a form cleaning and security. This is good for traders as it means more potential customers will visit the area because of improved safety and cleanliness. The PSSTMM is progressive in allowing traders, amongst other stakeholders, to be part of the policy formulation process. In this process, involved stakeholders through compromises have developed a plan agreed to by all. These principles are recognised in this research as progressive because they respond to the concepts of “inclusive” and “developmental”, which in this research are acknowledged as determining a progressive management model. However, the fee asked from street traders undermines this and I have argued that the PSSTMM to be progressive in this principle, participants of the PSSTMM need to focus on improving this principle by looking at other innovative ways. This could be done through street trader’s participation, in cleaning amongst others, to compliment the efforts of the City or of the private sector and consequently reducing the expected fee. ItemThe Challenges of Providing for the Street Homeless: Johannesburg as a Single Case Study(2014) Tayob, Muhammad ShabierThe thesis considers the challenges associated with providing for the street homeless in Johannesburg. From a planning perspective, the research aims at leading to enlightenment on practical solutions to address the problem in Johannesburg. The study notes that the street homeless or the ‘rough sleepers’ population are amongst the most distressed people that live in negligible and inadequate housing. Dating back since before apartheid, Johannesburg has been seen as a place that offers a platform to better one’s living conditions. Thus, there has always been a high influx of local and international migrants into the city. Given the successes of apartheid spatial planning in creating a racially and economically divided Johannesburg that served an urban minority only, the city’s infrastructure is unable to absorb and address all of its inhabitants. This, together with personal circumstances and structural inadequacies is resulting in an increase of street homeless people in the city. Street homelessness in Johannesburg requires a continuum of well-coordinated interventions that address the individualistic and structural causation factors. This research unpacks how street homelessness is being addressed in the Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality, with particular attention given to government responses. Through the gathering of qualitative and quantitative data, the research aims at measuring government’s effectiveness in addressing the issue. The report moves forward by providing debates, conceptualisations and approaches to homelessness across the globe. Followed by this, the research focuses on identifying gaps in current approaches to addressing the issue and through this, providing potential and valuable input that will assist in effectively curbing street homelessness. ItemAn Exploration of the Social Production of Vilakazi Street as a Social Space(2014) Segooa, TjakaUncertainties of globalisation and gentrification remain a persistent in former black townships. The assimilation of these ideologies has led to several unintentional consequences in spaces such as Vilakazi Street, Orlando West. Vilakazi Street has been identified by the City of Johannesburg through its implementing agent, Johannesburg Development Agency (JDA) as a potentially significant heritage, cultural and economic node. But the cultural implications are unknown. This study looks at the social production of Vilakazi Street within the context of Soweto in three criteria: the conceived, perceived and lived spaces since 1994. It critically explores how creativity and innovation within the social space of the street has contributed to the needs of existing local communities. Thirty five respondents were randomly selected and interviewed. These included government officials, local residents, business representatives, and tourists. In this quest, the conceived space focuses on how various interventions on the street were imagined by government officials and designers, the perceived space looks at how ordinary people have assigned meaning to the street, and the lived space focuses on the actual experience and purposeful use of the Street. The study has discovered that the use of a variety of spatial symbols allow experiments that may return spaces to the control of humanised and anti-capitalism everyday spatial practices. Thus, a consideration of cultural planning can offer better perceptions into the values and aspirations of existing local communities and enclose the gap between the past, present and future in such contexts. ItemThe Significance of Physical Infrastructure in Economic Growth: Maputo Development Corridor(2014) Letsile, LesegoThere has been an interest by government to invest in infrastructure in order to develop the country further and it assumes that this will increase economic growth. The Gauteng Department of Infrastructure and Development has aimed to increase infrastructure through the province in order to ensure that the foundations for growth are set. During the 2014 budget speech, the former Minister of Treasury announced that the government would be spending R143.8 billion on municipal infrastructure alone (Gauteng infrastructure, 2013). It is clear that the state recognises infrastructure as an important element of growth and through its investment national economic growth can be easily achieved. The research focuses on exploring the relationship between infrastructure and economic growth along the Maputo Development Corridor, it aims to look at the growth trends from 1996 to 2011 in order to understand the relationship in this context (Gauteng infrastructure, 2013). Through this investigation, the results will show the growth of local municipal economies compared to that of national trends in order to see the difference in growth (Gauteng infrastructure, 2013). The research will first analyse the literature on the relationship between infrastructure and economic growth, it will secondly investigate the MDC and finally analyse the statistical data that indicates growth within the chosen context. ItemLifestyle Estate Evolution in South Africa: Implications for Financial Viability and Environmental Sustainability(2014) de Beer, Sasha JaneIn recent years, lifestyle estates have become a prominent feature in both the rural and urban areas of South Africa. This research report argues and demonstrates that there has been an evolution of lifestyle estates in South Africa catalysed by private property developer’s concerns about the financial viability of these developments. The result has been the development of new types of lifestyle estates such as wildlife, country and eco-estates that do not include a golf course component. These new types of lifestyle estates are shown to be both more financially viable and environmentally sustainable than the original golf estate model that previously dominated the lifestyle estate sector in South Africa. The study comprises three main case studies, which include interviews with a property developer, estate agents and estate managers. The study also includes interviews with national financial institutions, to indicate that the findings by and large typify national lifestyle estate development trends. ItemAn Evaluation of the Inclusion of Principles of Corridor Development, Transit-Oriented Development and Non-Motorised Transportation within Johannesburg’s Corridors of Freedom: The Case of Turffontein Corridor(2014) Simões, VanessaThe City of Johannesburg, has in recent years, been addressing the need to transform the spatial inequalities still present in the City through the provision of efficient mass public transportation. Unfortunately many resident of the city still reside far from their place of work and struggle to get to their destinations. This was one of the driving factors of the Corridors of Freedom spatial policy. This policy is focused on providing the City of Johannesburg with corridor transit-oriented development in an attempt to increase densities around transport stations and bring people closer to education, leisure and their place of work. The Corridors of Freedom identified a number of corridors that will transform that part of the city and the Turffontein Development Corridor was the case study for this research report. Essentially this research report discussed the theories of corridor development, transit-oriented development and non-motorised transportation. In addition, the report also discussed the spatial policies of the City of Johannesburg in relation to these theories. These discussions were necessary in order to evaluate if the Turffontein Development Corridor was influenced by the objectives for future development provided by the spatial policies. Along with the evaluation of if the principles of these theories were used in the proposed conceptual framework for the study area. Essentially the main findings of this research was that the theories of corridor development, transit-oriented development and non-motorised transportation from the spatial policies where not adequately integrated into the Strategic Area Framework for the Turffontein Development Corridor. This shortfall hindered the final conceptual framework and implementation plan as many of the principles omitted did not appear in these plans. The biggest shortfall of the Turffontein Development Corridor was the proposed Rea Vaya BRT trunk route that will not provide the accessibility required to all forces of attraction nor will the chosen route be able to accommodate the trunk route as the road reserves in some section are too narrow. ItemSubsidised RDP Houses And Attached Rooms: Understanding The Nature Of ‘RDP Rooming’ In Ekurhuleni Municipality(2014) Mndawe, Thabi PreciousLow-income accommodation such as backyard dwellings and multi-habited housing compounds are essential to most urban poor in the developing countries such as Ghana, Kenya and South Africa since this form of accommodation seems to be meeting the housing demand of many of the urban poor in the current context. This research is focused on understanding the nature of RDP rooming accommodation in relation to low-income accommodation backyard dwellings and multi-habited housing compounds. This study uses qualitative, in-depth interviews conducted with landlords and tenants in Chris Hani, which is part of Daveyton, Kingsway and Chief Albert Luthuli in Ekurhuleni in order to investigate the characteristics of RDP rooms in relation to other low-income accommodations in particular backyard dwelling and multi-habited housing compounds. Furthermore, the characteristics of RDP rooming seem to be overlapping both forms of low-income accommodation (backyard dwelling and multi-habited housing compound). ItemCreating Sustainable Human Settlements using Integrated Housing Developments on infill Sites: A Case Study of Fleurhof, Johannesburg(2014) Khan, Mohamed MubeenIn the past twenty years since South Africa has become a democratic country, there have been countless efforts with regards to overcoming the problems created during apartheid. These problems stemmed from a spatial, social, economic and political background. In recent years South African cities have also been faced with environmental issues which are imperative to the future development in the country. With all of these spheres in mind, we see that the many efforts that are put in place by government always fall short of solving the issues. This research report will look at the Breaking New Ground Policy of 2004, to assess whether governments efforts of redistribution and equality have been sufficient to overcome the problems. The research looks into creating Sustainable Human Settlements as pointed out in the Breaking New Ground (BNG) policy of 2004. Taking into account the period since the Breaking New Ground (BNG) policy has been in place, problems of housing delivery still persist. The South African government uses housing as a means of giving citizens an equal chance at creating sustainable livelihoods. However, we are still faced with a backlog of 2.1-2.5 million housing units promised to residents. Along with this, is the problems of poor constructed housing, housing on the periphery of the city, unserviced or under serviced housing settlements, lack of amenities and a lack of many other amenities that would allow people to develop and grow. In recent years we have witnessed the development of Integrated Housing Developments, which take into account the guidelines and principles stipulated in the BNG policy. The research being carried out looks at these guidelines and principles in order to create the linkage between sustainable human settlements and integrated housing developments. With use of the Fleurhof Integrated Housing Development as a case study, the research looks at whether people are accounted for in the correct manner which will allow them a chance of creating sustainable livelihoods. With use of the case study and stakeholder perspectives, the researcher gives recommendations on how sustainable human settlements can be achieved in Johannesburg. The research also draws on infill development as a possible spatial intervention to achieve integration in the city. ItemSustainable State Housing Programmes: The Case of Pennyville(2014) Baloyi, Nyiko; Baloyi, NyikoThe Breaking New Ground Policy has played a major role in guiding the development of sustainable human settlements. It has also played a major role in guiding the formulation of housing policy amongst municipalities. For example in the City of Johannesburg it has influenced key policy documents such as the Growth and Development Strategy (GDS) 2040 and the Sustainable Human Settlement Urbanisation Plan. This report aimed to investigate how the notion of sustainable human settlements intersects with people‟s livelihoods. In other words, the research focused on how Pennyville is experienced as a sustainable human settlement by its residents. This intersection was guided by three key themes i.e. sustainable human settlements conceptualisation in theory and in South African housing policy, and sustainable livelihoods. The research aimed at understanding the intersection of the aforementioned things. Perhaps one of the main findings of the research was that the relationship between sustainable livelihoods and sustainable human settlements policy is fuzzy within the policy documents and in practice. ItemInvestigating the Role of LED as a Tool for Poverty Alleviation in Mbombela Municipality(2014) Mahlalela, SimangeleSince 1994, with the dawn of democracy, South Africa has remained with the challenge of reintegrating itself into the global economy and addressing the imbalances created by the apartheid regime. There have been a plethora of policies underpinned by neo-marxist and neo-liberal ideals that have been adopted by the state in order to promote economic growth and poverty alleviation. Amongst these policies are the Local Economic Development (LED) policies which have been aimed at growing local economies as well as to uplift previously disadvantaged groups. South Africa has been experiencing difficulties in finding a balance between developing pro-growth and pro-poor LED strategies and this has led to the criticism that ‘LED strategies in the country tend to be pro-growth rather than pro-poor’ . Due to this argument, the role of LED as a tool for poverty alleviation has therefore been challenged and this research report stems from that concern. The purpose of this research report is explore the concept of pro-poor LED in South Africa and to investigate how it is able to contribute towards poverty alleviation at a local context. The study area, Mbombela Municipality, forms the basis for this investigation in the exploration of four aspects of LED, namely; provision of services, infrastructure development (roads), job creation and business creation. The finding is that LED in Mbombela has not yet been able to impact on poverty alleviation significantly and this is due to the municipality’s lack of effective pro-poor strategies, poor implementation of projects and lack of resources and capacity. ItemThe Design of Policy to Physically Permeate Exclusive Social Enclaves: As Applied to Maboneng(2014) Kluth, Charnelle; Kluth, CharnelleSouth Africa’s vast inequality between the haves and the have nots have caused spatial fragmentation of the urban landscape. The haves are currently dominating the urban landscape with new developments of exclusive social enclaves whose benefits rarely breach its boundaries into surrounding communities. This is somewhat caused by the discrepancy between policy, particularly regeneration policy, and design and the physical manifestation in space thereof. The enclaves have to be made more permeable, accessible and inclusive by applying both design and policy principles in order to address socio-economic concerns and better integrate into the urban fabric. This research report investigated the development of socially exclusive enclaves, stated how and why they have developed as well as how to physically permeate their boundaries so as to develop them in a more inclusive manner. This was achieved by asking “What new policy/ies and physical design principles will permeate exclusive social enclaves?” and using Johannesburg’s Maboneng as an instrumental case study to conduct evaluative, qualitative, inductive research in the form of a photographic analysis and surveys. Maboneng shows evidence of social exclusion, particularly socio-economic exclusion. It has exclusive benefits as well as design and managerial qualities similar to that of other socially exclusive enclaves. The Precinct does, however, demonstrate somewhat of an interest in the surrounding communities and strives to re-engage Joburgers with their inner city. The literature review pertaining to enclave formation, urban regeneration, its related policy and urban design principles uncovered the need for a reformation of policy that incorporates contextually based models of urban regeneration with a focus on better regulated public-private partnerships, social justice and inclusivity and also recommended physical solutions incorporating liveable, meaningful, accessible and other inclusive design principles in its implementation. Socially exclusive enclaves, as discovered in this research report, are capable of encouraging inclusive development through the implementation of a 5 year Integrated Development Plan outlining the vision, goals, socio-economic obligations and public-private-partnership regulations of the development itself. A 5 year IDP will provide sufficient planning time and therefore better align the new development goals with that of the municipality and better integrate and coordinate its development with urban regeneration policies and community needs. An IDP will draw design and policy into one cohesive document so as to form a stronger relationship where both aspects are intertwined and deemed necessary for the encouragement of inclusive development. ItemRe-Modelling of Living Spaces in La Rochelle - Designing for Adaptable Living Spaces in Johannesburg South(2014) Mavuso, Nkosilenhle; Mavuso, NkosilenhleSub-Saharan Africa is currently faced with the situation of rapid urbanisation where large populations are migrating into cities from rural areas within their countries as well as across international borders (Jenkins, 2012). This ‘demographic bulge’, which is occurring in what, is “arguably a uniquely weak political and economic context” (Jenkins, 2012, 5). Coupled with largely low–income economic statuses and mobile populations (large portions of the residential occupants seek temporal living spaces), these residential typologies are developing to allow for flexibility, affordability, increased access to the benefits of the city, and to generate income through renting and/or subletting. The City of Johannesburg (CoJ)is developing this form of urban and morphological growth within some of its former ‘white’ (in terms of apartheid planning) inner-city and peri-inner city suburban areas, that now contain elements of both conventional and non-conventional (so called informal) dwelling types. After the official fall of the apartheid system in 1994, the city of Johannesburg has experienced rapid urban change, both demographically and physically (Crankshaw, 2008). Many of the white minority that occupied the inner-city and its immediate surrounds during apartheid, ‘fled’ to peripheral suburbs and gated communities to the north after the regime was abolished, leaving the inner city open to habitation of all kinds of people (Simone,2004). What became unique about this urban change was the physical transformation of settlement patterns and living spaces of the city’s old suburbs located on the periphery of the inner-city. In what Simone (2004) calls a case of the South African townships moving in, formation of make-shift ‘informal’ type living spaces began to creep into former white ‘formal’ suburban neighbourhoods, with migrants from within South Africa and other parts of Africa seeking residential spaces to rent. Areas such as Yeoville, Rosettenville and La Rochelle were amongst those where this living trend developed to greater magnitudes, with abandoned houses being occupied informally as well as small rooms being built in the backyards of single dwelling houses for rent. These emerging types of living space design largely happened outside the recognition of the state, in this case being the CoJ government. What seems prevalent in the formation of these informal forms of living within formal residential areas is the need for affordable living spaces in close proximity to economic opportunities found in the nearby city centre of Johannesburg. However, the low density single dwelling type design of these areas meant that there would be limited space to accommodate the increasing demand for residence in the areas. It is in this that the trend of informal living space sharing in the area emerged and has sparked my interest in investigating how these spaces are physically structured and administrated.The aim of this research report therefore is to investigate how La Rochelle’s residents and property owners have self-designed and self-administered their living spaces through remodelling their main houses and providing backroom dwellings to accommodate more occupants. The study, in a broader sense, investigates the organic growth of human settlements in Johannesburg, using the case study of La Rochelle, and try to determine the sustainability of the current housing remodelling and backroom development trend that is bringing in occupant numbers that are higher than formally allowed within single dwelling vicinities in an a settlement that was initially designed for low densities. Its main focus is on the idea of shared living spaces as an important aspect to how migrant communities live in the area and how they design their living spaces to allow for it. It looks into housing densities and how housing spaces are remodelled or reconfigured to allow for these densities and investigates whether there are suitable infrastructure facilities available in the area to sustain these densities. It further assesses the area’s adaptability and/or resilience to the changes (socially and physically) that were brought about by this growing housing provision trend, with the ever increasing cross-border and domestic migration that is said to be occurring in the City of Johannesburg. The research also looks into the proposed housing densification plan that the City of Johannesburg (CoJ) has for La Rochelle, as outlined in the Turffontein Strategic Area Framework, under the auspice of the Corridors of Freedom project, and assesses it with the current housing and living conditions of the area. In doing this, it provides bases for a critique of the plans that the CoJ government has for the redevelopment of the area, particularly with regards housing provision and densification strategies and draws conclusions on the possible impacts the new housing may have on the current residents of La Rochelle and based on my findings come up with recommendations on how the housing plans can be better conceptualised to suit the needs of the current occupants of and landowners in the area. ItemWalkability - Assessing the Complete Street Design Guidelines and Standards for the City of Johannesburg: a case of Bolani Road(2014) Mphafudi, SelloWalking is the most basic and most natural mode of transportation. More than 50% of people in Sub-Saharan Cities such as in Johannesburg take most trips by foot. The city of Johannesburg fully acknowledges the need to deal with walkability changes in the most effective and sustainable way so as to create a liveable and usable city. As part of the process to realise this vision the city has recognised the Complete Street Design Guideline Manual as the highest level instrument to implement change and improvement in the streets. What stands out as a challenge is the fact that walkability challenges are diverse and are complex to look at in isolation without consideration to other modes of transport; more especially because the street is a shared public space between many stake holders and users. In this research, four fundamental factors to walkability are out lined and expanded on using theory, a case study analysis, a discourse analysis, and interviews. There is an interconnected and close link between all four factors and it is fundamental their use in policy in a holistic and integral way. ItemExploring the Dynamics and Potential Outcomes of an Integrated Land Information System for Land Development - A Case Study of Johannesburg's Land Information System(2014) Momberg, MarkAs we delve deeper into the 21st century, the progressive diffusion of technology in our daily lives is becoming more apparent. The world is fundamentally changed due to the relentless pace and nature of technological advancements. Governments across the globe have recognised the importance of information technology in information management and public sector reform. Information technologies allow government to capture, store and maintain large volumes of information. This shift towards an electronically driven government has facilitated the implementation of information systems. With society becoming increasingly connected and spatially enabled, the expectation of government to perform has increased significantly. Access to reliable and efficient information is the cornerstone of the planning profession. The sharing of information electronically has an enormous potential for integration and coordination in planning within government. This report seeks to accentuate the immense potential of a Land Information System. These systems hold much potential for the contemporary planner. The research identified the importance of information in the realm of planning, as the basic resource in any decision making process. It is argued that the majority of local government functions are dependent on the same property data and that an integrated information system can enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of the decision making process in land development. The City of Johannesburg was the first metropolitan municipality in South Africa to undertake such an initiative. Through information integration, it was possible to implement a revolutionary database as a single source of property information. This research seeks to uncover the dynamics and potential outcomes of such a system. It uncovered how an integrated information system can be utilised to mechanise, optimise and revolutionise information usage. Land development could be enhanced through the implementation of a Land Information System, which involves process of property data collection. ItemInvestigating the ‘Regulation’ of Economic Activities in Mohlakeng Extension 7(2014) Wariawa, Ayesha; Wariawa, AyeshaHome-based enterprises are becoming increasingly common, especially in many townships within South Africa. Numerous home-based enterprises offer a means of survival as they allow for an income generation that sustains the livelihoods of many. However, some of these home-based enterprises are viewed as being unregulated, and falls part of the informal economy. Situated on the West Rand in Randfontein is a Township called Mohlakeng, of which Extension 7 in particular was explored during this study. This extension is an RDP housing settlement that was developed in 2003. Extension 7 provides a variety of home-based enterprises such as spaza shops, hairdressers, shebeens, day-care centres, motor vehicle repairs and so forth. I initially viewed these home-based enterprises as being unregulated and informal because of the structures in which they were carried out in, as many structures were made from corrugated iron. This initiated questions such as are economic activities (home-based enterprises) in Mohlakeng Extension 7 being regulated? Is the municipality aware of such economic activities? Are there any policies or regulatory frameworks set out by the municipality or other government structures? What are the processes of opening up a home-based enterprise? ItemCreating Urban Agriculture in the Corridors of Freedom - Case of the Turffontein Node(2014) De Sa Santos, NatashaThe concept of urban agriculture as a phenomenon is fast gaining momentum throughout the world. Although there has been great recognition of the social benefits associated with urban agricultural initiatives, such as poverty reduction, increasing food security and creating employment opportunities, this research focuses on the spatial design and planning of urban food gardens and how urban agriculture is manifesting in the City of Johannesburg. This research sought to establish how urban agriculture manifests in the City of Johannesburg with a focus on the Corridors of Freedom plans, which are being put forward by the City of Johannesburg, of which special attention has been given to the Turffontein Node in this report. Despite the spatial and physical orientation of the paper, the effects of aspects such as safety, security, education and management of space has been touched on and assists in the understanding of the nature of various spaces available for urban food gardens. Viewing urban agriculture as an ‘in-fill’ activity means that it is not seen as something that the city is responsible for implementing but instead is something that anyone can begin if they are able to identify the correct spaces available. ItemUnderstanding Homelessness Through Women's Experiences and Journey Through it(2014-10) Khoza, RirhandzuThis research report focuses on females from different walks of life who have become homeless. Broadly, the research seeks to understand the experience of homelessness from a female’s perspective, whilst also delving into the factors that lead to homelessness on 44 Grand Central BoulevardThe research uncovers the females’ experience of homelessness against the backdrop of socio-economic factors that have resulted in their homelessness. It highlights the dangers of being homeless, the inability to gain access to basic services and explores the manner in which the homeless females have been able to shape and design the spaces that they live in. From a gendered perspective, the research reveals the preference of illegally living on private land in comparison to the participants living in secure accommodation. Furthermore, it seeks to understand the females’ perception of home and homelessness. Tipple and Speak (2005) argue that establish a nuanced understanding of homelessness is challenging therefore it needs to be understood within a particular context. Therefore, the research re-examines and contextualises the conditions of homelessness on 44 Grand Central Boulevard in order to better understand homelessness.