Conjoint tobacco and alcohol use, and depressive symptoms among hiv positive patients in Sedibeng District, Gauteng

Background: Psychosocial challenges among HIV positive patients may promote substance use disorders. In this study, we explored the relationship between conjoint tobacco and alcohol use and depression symptoms among HIV positive patients in Sedibeng district, South Africa. Methods: In a cross-sectional study of 404 participants, a questionnaire collected information on socio-demography, tobacco and alcohol use, and depression symptoms. Outcome measures included the prevalence of conjoint tobacco and alcohol use, and its association with depression. Results: The mean participant age was 43.2 years. Most completed secondary school 62.9% (253/402), were black 99.0% (400/404), female 65.8% (266/404), unemployed 53.6% (216/403) and on ART for >1 year 97.8% (393/402). Current tobacco use was reported by 23.3% (94/404) participants with most smoking cigarette (73.7%) and having low nicotine dependence (75.5%). Current alcohol use was reported by 43.6% (176/404) participants, and 36.9% were categorised as harmful users. Only 7.7% (31/404) participants screened positive for depression; most of these (83.3%) previously undiagnosed. The prevalence of conjoint tobacco and alcohol use was 19.6% (79/404) and this was not associated with depression (p=0.438). Harmful alcohol users were more than five times likely to report conjoint tobacco and alcohol use (p=0.000) but women were less likely to report it (p=0.000).
A research report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Medicine (MMed) in Family medicine to the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, School of Clinical Medicine, Johannesburg, 2023
Conjoint, Tobacco, Depression, Alcohol, HIV