A comparison of early onset pre-eclampsia and late onset preeclampsia

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Background: Early onset pre-eclampsia (EOPE) occurs before 34 weeks while late onset preeclampsia (LOPE) occurs after 34 weeks. The maternal and neonatal outcomes has are different with EOPE having a higher frequency of maternal and neonatal complications. Objectives To compare the clinical presentations, laboratory parameters, maternal and neonatal outcomes in women with EOPE and LOPE. Methods: This was a cross sectional prospective record review. Convenient sampling was performed every fifth day and recruited preeclamptic women that delivered at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital (CHBAH) and Rahima Moosa Mother and Child Hospital (RMMCH). Descriptive statistics were employed. Results: There were 104 women of which 64 (61.5%) had EOPE and 40( 38.5%) had LOPE. A higher frequency of Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (P=0.040), blurred vision (P=0.009), headache (P= <0.001) eclampsia (P=0.011) and HELLP syndrome (0.004) was observed in EOPE. The number of still births (P<0.001), neonates with an APGAR of less than 7 at 5 minutes (p=0.001), and neonatal admissions (P= <0.001) were higher in EOPE. There was no difference in the outcome between the HIV positive and negative women Conclusion: With EOPE, end organs appear to be more severely affected than in LOPE. The HIV prevalence between the two groups was comparable
A research report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Medicine (MMed) in Obstetrics and Gynaecology to the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, School of Clinical Medicine, Johannesburg, 2023
Pre-eclampsia, Neonatal complications, Maternal complications