Prevalence and correlates of common mental disorders in persons living with HIV in public primary care facilities in Ekurhuleni District

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Background The prevalence of common mental disorders (CMDs) in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) is estimated to be more than in the general population. These CMDs are associated with poor HIV treatment outcomes. Therefore, guidelines recommend that healthcare workers screen for CMDs in PLHIV. The CMD prevalence in PLHIV in Ekurhuleni District was not previously found. Aims To determine the prevalence and correlates of CMDs in PLHIV in primary healthcare facilities in Ekurhuleni District. Setting A cross-sectional study conducted across seven primary health facilities in the eastern sub-district of Ekurhuleni District. Methods Data was collected from 403 randomly selected participants, using a questionnaire incorporating the scores of the PHQ-9, GAD-7 and substance use disorder (SUD) criteria of DSM 5. The proportion screening positive for CMDs was calculated. Univariate and multivariate analysis was done using ’R’ statistical software. A 95% confidence interval was adopted. Results Of the 403 participants studied, 63% were female, and the mean age was 43±11 years. Forty percent of participants screened positive for CMDs, 16.6% for depression, 15.1% for generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) and 24.1% for SUD. CMDs were associated with poor adherence and unsuppressed viral load, while being female and increasing age were associated with reduced risk of CMDs. Also, males were 11 times more likely to have severe SUD. Healthcare workers in the facilities screened only 16%, 14% and 40% of the cohort for depression, GAD and SUDs, respectively.
A research report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Medicine (MMed) in Family Medicine to the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, School of Clinical Medicine, Johannesburg, 2023
Common mental disorders, Primary healthcare facilities, HIV treatment