ItemAn unusual mayfly (Insecta: Ephemeroptera) from the Triassic of South Africa(Bernard Price Institute for Palaeontological Research, 1976) Riek, E. F.An unusual mayfly from the Upper Triassic near Dordrecht in the Cape Province of South Africa is described as Xenophlebia optata gen. et sp. nov., and is ascribed to a new family, the Xenophlebiidae, as its sole representative. ItemFossil insects from the Middle Ecca (Lower permian) of southern Africa(Bernard Price Institute for Palaeontological Research, 1976) Riek, E. F.Three insects are recorded from carbonaceous shales of Middle Ecca age from Hammanskraal, near Pretoria. Thaumalophora pranotalis gen. et sp. nov., is an aquatic nymph of the Paraplecoptera showing lateral abdominal gills. Sysciophlebia kovacsae sp. nov. is a tegmen of a spiloblattinid cockroach. The third specimen is a small protopsyllidiid nymph. Only three insects of greater age are known from southern Africa. ItemAn entomobryid collembolan (Hexapoda: Collembola) from the Lower Permian of Southern Africa(Bernard Price Institute for Palaeontological Research, 1976) Rick, E. F.Permobrya mirabilis gen. et sp. nov., recorded from carbonaceous shales of the Middle Ecca of southern Africa, is a rather large entomobryid collembolan. The specimen, preserved in lateral view, is complete except for the dentes and mucrones of the furcula and details of the claws which are not visible in the shale matrix. The species is surprisingly similar to Recent Collembola. ItemOn some "northern" elements in the Lower Gondwana flora of Vereeniging, Transvaal(Bernard Price Institute for Palaeontological Research, 1976) le Roux, S. F.A small assemblage of plant elements from the Lower Permian of Vereeniging, in the southern Transvaal, is described here. The assemblage is constituted of form-genera normally only found in the palaeo floristic regions of the northern hemisphere. The genera concerned are: Pecopteris (Asterotheca), Cladophlebis, Sphenophyllum and Psygmophyllum. The intermingling of these "Northern" elements with the Glossopteris flora of Vereeniging serves to illustrate the mixed nature of this flora. Reference is made to similar mixed Gondwana floras elsewhere in Africa and also in South America. ItemNotes on some Glossopteris species from Hammanskraal (Transvaal)(Bernard Price Institute for Palaeontological Research, 1976) Kovacs- Endrody, E.The study of Glossopteris began with the mistake that two half fronds were glued together as one and that specimen was chosen as the holotype of one of the first Glossopteris ever described, Glossopteris browniana var. indica Bngn. The mistake led to confusion and even to distrust of the possibility of identifying Glossopteris species on frond impressions only. As most of the GIossopteris remains are such, and the literature from Brongniart onwards is mainly based on them, the frond morphography is bound to be the starting point of the classification. The present paper shows that (a) with the examination of greater numbers of specimens, it is possible to select the specific characters and to learn the individual variations and (b) identifications can only be based on the original descriptions and figures of the taxa. ItemPreliminary report on equisetalean plants from Lidgetton, Natal(Bernard Price Institute for Palaeontological Research, 1976)Fossils of Equisetum-like plants from a site near Lidgetton, Natal, South Africa (29"26'S, 30"07' E) are described. These comprise rhizomes bearing roots, stems of varying width showing external and some internal structure (especially nodal markings and vasculature), and ultimate branchlets bearing leaf whorls. No reproductive organs were found. A tentative decision is reached that they are parts of plants of a single genus, perhaps even a single species, and that relationship is closest to Equisetites Sternberg. ItemNumerical methods in the definition of palynological assemblage zones in the Lower Karroo (Gondwana) of Rhodesia(Bernard Price Institute for Palaeontological Research, 1976) Falcon, Rosemary M. S.The aim of this paper is to explore the possibility of using numerical methods in the sub-division of the palynological assemblages encountered upwards in the stratigraphic sequence in one borehole core situated in a central position in the Mid-Zambezi Basin, Rhodesia. Due to its apparently conformable thick succession and the variable micro-floras already encountered within it, this borehole has been proposed as a palynological type section for the Zambezi Basin, Rhodesia. The numerical methods used to delineate zones of similar assemblages were basically very simple, using only presence-absence data of a set range of species. The formulae employed were those of Jaccard, Simpson and Sokal (the only linear method), and the methods of classification were simplified forms of divisive or shaded half matrices, agglomerative using single linkage clustering, and spatial ordination techniques. The results support the concept of distinct changes of microfloras up the stratigraphic sequence. Groups of assemblages bearing similar microfloras appear stratigraphically adjacent to one another, barring certain minor instances of transition floras in the younger sequences. Measurable delineations or boundaries between these assemblage zones are illustrated. These numerically defined zones coincide very closely with the assemblage zones already proposed on a visual (quantitative and qualitative) basis. ItemA new species of Dammaroxylon Schultze-Motel, D. Natalense sp. nov. from the Cretaceous of Natal, South Africa(Bernard Price Institute for Palaeontological Research, 1976) Erasmus, T.In the Cretaceous rocks of the M'hlosinga district, Zululand, Natal a new species of the form genus Dammaroxylon Schultze-Motel, D. natalense sp. nov., has been discovered. New evidence regarding the structure of the marginal ray parenchyma cells has been obtained. The conclusion is reached that Dammaroxylon could possibly take an intermediate phylogenetic position between the Araucariaceae and Podocarpaceae. ItemOn tile anatomy of Dadoxylon arberi Seward with some remarks on the phylogenetical tendencies of its tracheid pits(Bernard Price Institute for Palaeontological Research, 1976) Erasmus, T.A well preserved specimen of Dadoxylon arberi Seward has been discovered in the Beaufort Series (Upper Karroo System) of the Empangeni district in Natal, South Africa. The species is characterized by the tracheid pits which are araucaroid in the multiseriate condition, but which are more often circular and separately arranged or appear in stellate groups. The cross field pits tend to be aligned in horizontal pairs. Dadoxylon arberi shows a relationship with several species of the recent Araucariaceae. Its resemblance to other Gondwana woods from other Southern Hemisphere countries suggests a great uniformity in the elements of the coniferous flora of that time. It is suggested that Dadoxylon arberi represents an intermediate form between the Araucariaceae and Podocarpaceae. The reduction in the seriation of the tracheid pits and a drifting thereof seems to stand in close correlation with the formation of annual rings. ItemSeveral new forms of Glossopteris fructifications from the Beaufort Daptocephalus-Zone (Upper Permian) of Natal, South Africa(Bernard Price Institute for Palaeontological Research, 1976) Benecke, Anna K.Fertile material, consisting of 27 specimens showing 29 fructifications from Mooi River and 46 specimens showing 98 fructifications from the Loskop site, is described. An emended generic diagnosis of Dictyopteridium is given; specimens belonging to D.sporiferum Feistmantel and D. flabellatum sp. nov. are described, as well as Fetura gen. nov. including F. natalensis comb. nov. and Scopus gen. nov. containing S. gibbosus, S. confertus, S. didiscus and S. obscurus spp. nov. ItemThe plant record in the Dwyka and Ecca series (Permian) of the South-Western half of the Great Karroo Basin, South Africa(Bernard Price Institute for Palaeontological Research, 1976)There is a different relationship between the Dwyka and Ecca Series deposits in two geographically distinct areas of the Great Karroo Basin: in the south-west the White Band terminates the Upper Dwyka Shales, which conformably separate the Dwyka Tillite Stage from the Ecca Series, while in the north-east the Ecca Series, including the Coal Measures, rests directly on the Dwyka glacial deposits or pre- Karroo basement. The stratigraphic correlation of the sequence in the two areas is uncertain as the White Band and Coal Measures sandstones nowhere occur in the same section. The floras from the north-east have been widely described and illustrated; not so those from the south-west. The available information, part of it new, and representative illustrations are presented in this article. The material is too poor to merit formal taxonomic definition, but some general comparisons are possible. The genera Gangamopteris and Noeggerathiopsis are characteristic of the "Glossoopteris flora" in the Coal Measures in the north-east; they also occur in the glacial deposits in the south-west. This could be cited in support of isochronous accumulation of the sediments in question. Against this, there is some evidence indicating that Gangamopteris may persist above the White Band into the Ecca Series in the south-west. The advanced "Glossopteris floras" from the Upper Ecca Stages and overlying Beaufort Series in the two halves of the basin appear to be alike. A single incomplete' specimen of an "advanced" Glossopteris leaf has been found incongruously in the White Band equivalent in South West Africa. It is concluded that reliable correlation between the various Lower Karroo sequences cannot be based on the existing megaplant record. ItemA review of the Bryophyta from the Upper Triassic Molteno Formation, Karroo Basin, South Africa(Bernard Price Institute for Palaeontological Research, 1976) Anderson, Heidi M.The Bryophyta from the Upper Triassic, Molteno Formation, Karroo Basin, South Africa are reviewed. Two species of liverworts, Marchantites cyathodoides (Townrow) comb. nov., M. tennantii sp. nov. (with possible fertile structures), and one species of moss, Muscites guescelini Townrow (with impresions of antheridia) are described. A single specimen is referred to Thallites sp. A. A total of 49 specimens are available, 11 from Townrow's collection and 38 from the present collection. These are derived from a total of six separate localities.