*Electronic Theses and Dissertations (PhDs)

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    South African academics’ intent to quit and intent to emigrate: an integration of turnover and emigration theories
    (2022) Callaghan, Natasha Chomba
    The present study contributes to the existing body of knowledge on factors that affect academics’ intent to quit and intent to emigrate. The objective of the study was to investigate relationships between individual differences (core self-evaluations), work attitudes (job satisfaction), contextual or work environment (perceived organisational support), and external or societal conditions (satisfaction with quality of life in South Africa), and their effects on academics’ intent to quit and intent to emigrate. The overarching goal was to integrate, review, and test turnover and migration theories and to investigate determinants of academics’ intent to quit, and intent to emigrate. Respondents (full time academics) from five higher education institutions, namely University of Pretoria, University of the Witwatersrand, University of Cape Town, Central University of Technology, and University of Fort Hare were invited to participate. Usable data from 471 respondents were analysed using statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) software and structural equation modelling or SEM using Analysis of Moment Structures Software (AMOS SPSS). The direct relationship between core self-evaluations and academics’ intent to quit, and between core self-evaluations and intent to emigrate was tested in the presence of indirect paths (mediators, a moderator, and an interaction variable). A non-significant relationship between core self-evaluations and academics’ intent to quit, and a non-significant relationship between core self-evaluations and academics’ intent to emigrate was found. Tests of mediation found perceived organisational support to fully mediate the relationship between core self-evaluations and intent to quit, and to fully mediate the relationship between core self-evaluations and intent to emigrate. Job satisfaction was also found to fully mediate the relationship between core self-evaluations and intent to quit, and to fully mediate the relationship between core self-evaluations and intent emigrate. Results of tests of moderation found satisfaction with quality of life to moderate the relationship between core self-evaluations and intent to quit such that the relationship between core self-evaluations and intent to quit was stronger. Satisfaction with quality of life did not moderate the relationship between core self-evaluation’s and intent to emigrate. Although a majority of academics had no intention to quit or emigrate, an interesting finding was that those that were intending to emigrate were more than those intending to quit. This study contributes to the current literature on turnover and migration theory and extends the discussion to merging predictors of turnover and migration intentions in higher education contexts. This study also extends earlier turnover and migration research by confirming that predictors of turnover intentions and migration intentions are similar.
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    The social nature and outcome of the interactions in a non-monetary centred sharing economy: from a social exchange theory perspective
    (2021) Radaelli, Stephano
    The sharing economy is a collective name for emerging platforms that are bringing strangers together and changing the landscape of consumption. Individuals have been using these sharing economy platforms as an alternative to traditional trade to exchange resources. This study refined to the context of a non-monetary form of the sharing economy, namely Couchsurfing, where the reliance on social relationships were expected to be more prevalent. The social relationships between peers during an exchange offered an opportunity to find applicability and relevancy for social exchange theory. This study aimed to clarify the social nature of the interaction in Couchsurfing and determine the outcomes from these Couchsurfing interactions. Using a phenomenological research design, 19 in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted together with an immersive experience as an active participant of the chosen sharing economy platform, Couchsurfing. Couchsurfing is a sharing economy platform that enables travellers to stay with other members for free. The positionality of the researcher was from an insider perspective studying other insiders. The data collected was analysed using a thematic analysis approach. Social exchange theory was supported in finding that the social nature of the interaction in Couchsurfing was reciprocal. The reciprocal exchange was clarified as co-created, continuous and dynamic. Individuals revealed that there was a necessity for a reciprocal response directly from the recipient. The findings confirmed that Couchsurfers had unspoken and explicitly stated expectations of a reciprocal relationship which impacted the continuity of the exchange after the Couchsurfing experience. This study also identified different social benefits that individuals gained from their Couchsurfing interactions. Throughout, these 2 research findings espoused and expanded on previous contributions to the theoretical framework. The presence of generosity during the reciprocal exchange has challenged the theoretical premise that individuals wanted to maximise their gains. Further research into generosity during the reciprocal exchange has been recommended.