This collection contains data collected in the course of clinical work in Nephrology across several hospitals
In particular , the CMJAH Living Donor Clinic has a long history . You can see that the work of the unit has inspired or directly produced many thesis. We also have a selection of work on transplants. This collection also includes data on kidney disease from other tertiary hospitals in gauteng
PARTICIPANT NOTICE OF DATA SHARING FOR STUDY TITLED ‘EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL KIDNEY DONORS AND OUTCOMES POST-DONATION AT CHARLOTTE MAXEKE JOHANNESBURG ACADEMIC HOSPITAL (1983-2015)’.
The Division of Nephrology at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital ( Previously JHB GEN)conducted a research study in the unit’s Living Donor Clinic. The study assessed clinical data of all individuals who presented to this clinic from January 1983 to July 2015. Written permission to access clinical records was obtained from the Human Research Ethics Committee (Medical) of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.
The purpose of the study was to analyze living kidney donation in the South African setting with the hope that the clinical findings of this research may contribute toward the future betterment of care for all potential kidney donors and that this data may expand upon the limited information available in this important field of study.
As a patient belonging to this Living Donor Transplant Community, you have the right to direct how your information is shared for use by research platforms. You may engage with the principal investigator of this study should you have any queries regarding how the data from this study is being applied. You may also withdraw consent to share any information you feel is potentially identifying at any point.
Should you require any further information regarding the study, please feel free to contact the principal investigator, Dr Chandni Dayal via email
or telephonically on 011 489 0467.
Please note that prior to accessing your clinical records, approval was obtained from the Human Research Ethics Committee (Medical) of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. A principal function of this Committee is to safeguard the rights and dignity of all individuals who are a part of research projects and the integrity of the research. If you have any complaints or concerns over the way the study was conducted, please contact the Chairperson of this Committee who is Dr. Clement Penny, on telephone number 011 717 2301, or by e-mail
The telephone numbers for the Committee secretariat are 011 717 2700/1234 and the e-mail addresses are Zanele.Ndlovu@wits.ac.za and Rhulani.Mukansi@wits.ac.za
Thank you for reading this notice.
11 March 2022
Dr Chandni Dayal
The African Research on Kidney Disease (ARK) Study aimed to determine chronic kidney disease (CKD) prevalence and identify associated risk factors in rural South Africa. The study took place from November 2017 to September 2018 and included a population-based sample (N=2759) of adults aged 20-79 years from the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site in rural Bushbuckridge, Mpumalanga Province. Institutional review board approval was obtained from the University of Witwatersrand (clearance number M170583) Written informed consent was obtained from individual participants prior to enrolment.
This is a secondary data analysis nested within the ARK study. In this population-based cohort study, we aimed to characterise the burden of urinary schistosomiasis in rural South Africa and evaluate its relationship with markers of kidney dysfunction with implications for CKD screening. We recruited 2021 adults aged 20-79 years in the Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Sociodemographic and anthropometric data were recorded, urinalysis performed, and serum and urine samples collected. We measured serum creatinine and urine albumin/creatinine. Kidney dysfunction was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60ml/min/1.73m2 and/or urine albumin-creatinine ratio >3.0mg/mmol. S.haematobium infection was determined by urine microscopy. Multivariable analyses were performed to determine relationships between S.haematobium and kidney dysfunction.
The methodology for this sub-study is dependent on the larger ARK study processes. Data quality and ethics processes have previously been validated by the ARK consortium . Institutional review board approval was obtained from the University of Witwatersrand (clearance number M170583) Written informed consent was obtained from individual participants prior to enrolment. Additional approval for this sub-study from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (reference number 22152).
Kalyesubula R, Fabian J, Nakanga W, Newton R, Ssebunnya B, Prynn J, et al. How to estimate glomerular filtration rate in sub-Saharan Africa: design and methods of the African Research into Kidney Diseases (ARK) study. BMC Nephrol. 2020 Jan 15;21(1):20.
(2016-11-18) Naicker, Saraladevi; Fabian, June; Jaya A George; Harriet R Etheredge; Manuel van Deventer; Robert Kalyesubula; Alisha N Wade; Laurie A Tomlinson; Stephen Tollman
Globally, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an emerging public health challenge but accurate data on its true prevalence are scarce, particularly in poorly resourced regions such as sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Limited funding for population-based studies, poor laboratory infrastructure and the absence of a validated estimating equation for kidney function in Africans are contributing factors. Consequently, most available studies used to estimate population prevalence are hospital-based, with small samples of participants who are at high risk for kidney disease. While serum creatinine is most commonly used to estimate glomerular filtration, there is considerable potential bias in the measurement of creatinine that might lead to inaccurate estimates of kidney disease at individual and population level. To address this, the Laboratory Working Group of the National Kidney Disease Education Program published recommendations in 2006 to standardize the laboratory measurement of creatinine. The primary objective of this review was to appraise implementation of these recommendations in studies conducted in SSA after 2006. Secondary objectives were to assess bias relating to choice of estimating equations for assessing glomerular function in Africans and to evaluate use of recommended diagnostic criteria for CKD. This study was registered with Prospero (CRD42017068151), and using PubMed, African Journals Online and Web of Science, 5845 abstracts were reviewed and 252 full-text articles included for narrative analysis. Overall, two-thirds of studies did not report laboratory methods for creatinine measurement and just over 80% did not report whether their creatinine measurement was isotope dilution mass spectroscopy (IDMS) traceable. For those reporting a method, Jaffe was the most common (93%). The four-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (4-v MDRD) equation was most frequently used (42%), followed by the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation for creatinine (26%). For the 4-v MDRD equation and CKD-EPI equations, respectively, one-third to one half of studies clarified use of the coefficient for African-American (AA) ethnicity. When reporting CKD prevalence, <15% of studies fulfilled Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria and even fewer used a population-based sample. Six studies compared performance of estimating equations to measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR) demonstrating that coefficients for AA ethnicity used in the 4-v MDRD and the CKD-EPI equations overestimated GFR in Africans. To improve on reporting in future studies, we propose an 'easy to use' checklist that will standardize reporting of kidney function and improve the quality of studies in the region. This research contributes some understanding of the factors requiring attention to ensure accurate assessment of the burden of kidney disease in SSA. Many of these factors are difficult to address and extend beyond individual researchers to health systems and governmental policy, but understanding the burden of kidney disease is a critical first step to informing an integrated public health response that would provide appropriate screening, prevention and management of kidney disease in countries from SSA. This is particularly relevant as CKD is a common pathway in both infectious and non-communicable diseases, and multimorbidity is now commonplace, and even more so when those living with severe kidney disease have limited or no access to renal replacement therapy.
(REDcap, 2019-12-09) Fabian, June; Botha, Jean; Van der Schyff, Francisca.; Terblanche, Alberta J
Biliary atresia (BA) is a progressive fibrosing cholangiopathy of infancy, the most common cause of cholestatic jaundice in infants and the top indication for liver transplantation in children. Kasai portoenterostomy (KPE) when successful may delay the requirement for liver transplantation, which in the majority offers the only cure. Good outcomes demand early surgical intervention, appropriate management of liver cirrhosis, and in most cases, liver transplantation. These parameters were audited of children with BA treated at the Steve Biko Academic Hospital (SBAH) in Pretoria, South Africa.
(2022-07-13) Fabian, June; Gondwe, Mwawi; Mayindi, Nokthula; Khoza, Bongekile; Gaylard, Petra; Wade, Alisha N.; Gómez‑Olivé, F. Xavier; Tomlinson, Laurie A.; Ramsay, Michele; Tollman, Stephen Meir; Winkler, Cheryl; George, Jaya Anna; Naicker, Saraladevi; Study data were collected and managed using opensource REDCap electronic data capture tools hosted at the University of the Witwatersrand
This longitudinal cohort study was conducted from November 2017 to September 2018 in the Medical Research Council (MRC)/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (otherwise referred to as "Agincourt") in Bushbuckridge, a rural subdistrict of the Mpumalanga province in north-eastern South Africa. Agincourt is a Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site that includes approximately 115,000 people. For this study, a minimum sample size of 1800 was required to provide at least 80% power to determine CKD prevalence of at least 5%, provided the true prevalence was equal to or more than 6.5%. Proportional allocation of Black African adults aged 20 to 79 years ensured a representative sample based on the most recent annual population census. Sample size was increased proportionately to 2759 individuals to accommodate a 25% non-participation rate.
Dataset is 2022 cases
3. Years of Education (refers to completed years of schooling)
4. Height (cm) (one decimal place)
5. weight (kg) (one decimal place)
6. BMI (body mass index)
7. POC random cholesterol (mmol/L) (2 decimal places)
8. POC random glucose (mmol/L) (1 decimal place)
9. HIV status is:
Based on (i) prior HIV testing history OR (ii) HIV PCR testing for ARK
10. Using the urine pregnancy test, is this participant pregnant? (
11. ERY (erythrocytes, blood)
12. Hb (haemoglobin, blood) LEU (leucocytes)
13. NIT (nitrites)
14. PRO (protein)
15. hepatitis B surface antigen
16. Serum creatinine (umol/L)
17. Systolic BP(1)
18. Diastolic BP (1)
19. Systolic BP(2)
20. Diastolic BP (2)
21. Systolic BP(3)
22. Diastolic BP (3)
23. Serum creatinine (umol/L)
24. Urine microalbumin (mg/L)
25. Urine creatinine (mmol/L)
26. Urine microalbumin (mg/L)
27. Urine creatinine (mmol/L)
28. APOL1 haplotype
Ethics approval for this study was granted in writing by the Human Research Ethics Committee (Medical) of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa (clearance certificate numbers M1511104, M121184, M120874). This approval permitted a record review of all HIV-positive patients who underwent a kidney biopsy at two tertiary hospitals in Johannesburg within the defined study period. Informed consent for this retrospective record review was waived. Data from included patients was anonymised prior to statistical analysis.
Renal biopsies performed at these two tertiary hospitals, on HIV-positive individuals, from January 1989 to December 2014 were retrospectively analysed. Demographic data (age, sex and race), clinical parameters (CD4 count, HIV viral load, serum creatinine and urine protein creatinine ratio), indication for biopsy and renal histological pattern was recorded at time of kidney biopsy. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated according to the CKD-EPI creatinine equation without ethnicity correction. ART rollout began in April 2004 in South Africa. Patients were divided into 2 groups - those who were biopsied pre-ART rollout and those biopsied post-ART rollout. These two groups were compared with respect to the above parameters.
In a subgroup of the patients biopsied between 2004 and 2014, additional data laboratory parameters (serum haemoglobin, serum albumin, serial serum creatinine and eGFR) and ART use (at time of biopsy) were recorded.
All renal biopsies were processed according to standard techniques for light microscopy, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. All biopsies were reviewed by the National Health
Laboratory Service histopathology team who were aware of the HIV status of the patient at time of biopsy.
Histological diagnoses were tabulated using the 2018 Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Controversies Conference guidelines. As per this guideline FSGS (NOS) in the setting of HIV describes all non-collapsing forms of FSGS. Those ICGN with no identifiable comparative etiology other than HIV were categorized as uncharacterized ICGN with no etiology other than HIV. The biopsies with multiple diagnoses were assigned its major clinical-pathological diagnosis for the purposes of analysis.
All data was collected by Dr Nina Diana and Dr Alda Vermeulen from paper based patient hospital records and the electronic hospital laboratory system. All data was checked twice to ensure accuracy. Each patient was allocated a study number and data anonymised prior to entry into Microsoft Excel.
Shapiro Wilk W testing and visual inspection of the histogram plot indicated non-parametric distribution of baseline characteristics of the cohort; accordingly, central and dispersal measurements were described using the median and interquartile range (IQR), and the Kruskal Wallis ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for comparative analyses. Kidney survival, defined by an eGFR above threshold for consideration for dialysis initiation in these institutions (15mL/min/1.73m²), censored for patient default with preserved function, was fitted for patients in the subgroup using the Kaplan Meyer method; histological diagnoses were compared using Log-rank testing.