ItemOn small Therocephalians(Bernard Price Institute for Palaeontological Research, 1961-08-01)The snout of a new specimen of Akidnognathus parvus is described in detail from serial sections at .5mm. intervals. Special reference is made to the structure of the septomaxillary and its possible morphological significance. It is suggested that its peculiar arrangement is relatable to a readaptation in the mode of smelling in mammal-like Reptiles. Additional descriptions deal with new specimens assignable to Ictidostoma hemburyi, Ictidosuchops intermedius, Ictidosuchops bauroides and Ictidosuchoides longiceps. All descriptions are accompanied by adequate figures. The new information adds little to existing views on the relationship of the families Ictidosuchidae and Scaloposauridae. ItemA new type of primitive Cynodont(Bernard Price Institute for Palaeontological Research, 1961-08-01) Brink, A. S.A very interesting ancestral type of Cynodont is described in reasonable detail from serial sections, graphical figures, and a complete wax model, four times natural size. The form is recognised as a new genus and species, for which the name Scalopocynodon gracilis is proposed. It is the earliest true Cynodont, from the base of the lower Cistecephalus-zone. Although its nearest allies are the somewhat later Silphedestids and Procynosuchids, it has unmistakably very close affinity with the base of the Ictidosuchid-Scloposaurid branch of the Therocephalians. Thus new light is cast on the origin of the Cynodonts and their general relationship with the Therocephalia. The specimen was thought to be a Scaloposaurus before it was decided to subject it to serial grinding. ItemFurther revision of the fossil Elephantidae of Southern Africa(Bernard Price Institute for Palaeontological Research, 1961-08-01)The South African fossil Metarchidiskodon griqua is regarded as indeterminable and hence as a nomen vanum; the generic name thus also falls away. A new method for representing graphically the main dimensional features of elephant molar teeth is applied to the fossil species from southern and East Africa. It is suggested that the genus Palaeoloxodon is not represented in these regions and that most of the extinct elephants must be placed in Archidiskodon. The species distinguished are A. subplanifrons, A. broomi, A. exoptatus, A . recki and A. transvaalensis, while A. africanavus and A. archidiskodontoides are of uncertain status. The North African "Elephas" atlanticus is placed in Loxodonta and the South African species zulu is regarded as a synonym. It is considered that the Pleistocene elephants of Africa have evolved within the continent itself. ItemA preliminary investigation of the mammalian microfauna in Pleistocene deposits of caves in the Transvaal system(Bernard Price Institute for Palaeontological Research, 1961-08-01) De Graaff, G.This investigation aims to extend our knowledge of the fossil mammalian microfauna found in the Australopithecus-bearing breccias of the Transvaal System at Taung, Sterkfontein and Makapansgat. The available data derived from other localities such as Kromdraai and Bolt's Farm have been incorporated. The origin of these fossils, the method of extraction from the breccias, and a brief review of the geological nature of the deposits under consideration are discussed. ItemSome new fossil Cercopithecoid specimens from Makapansgat, South Africa(Bernard Price Institute for Palaeontological Research, 1961-08-01) Freedman, LEighty-eight new fossil cercopithecoid specimens from Makapansgat, South Africa are considered. They are referred to the species Parapapio broomi, P. jonesi, P. whitei, Cercopithecoides williamsi and Simopithecus darti. With the exception of P. whitei, each of these species has previously been described from this site. The new material considerably extends our knowledge of all of the above species and the species Cercopithecoides molletti, previously described from Swartkrans, must now be sunk and the material referred to C. williamsi. Some remarks are made about the status of the South African species of the genus Simopithecus.