Fossil proboscidean remains from Bolt's Farm and other Transvaal cave breccias

Cooke, H B S
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Bernard Price Institute for Palaeontological Research
Proboscidean remains are very rare in the Transvaal cave breccias and the few specimens recovered are generally fragmentary but deserve description because of their potential value in correlation and dating. The best specimen is the back half of a left lower molar from Pit 7 of the University of California African Expedition's work at Bolt's Farm. It was regarded by Maglio as representing Elephas ekorensis but closer examination suggests that there are some more progressive characters and it most likely represents Elephas recki brumpti. The stump of a second molar from Bolt's farm also accords with this taxon. Makapansgat has furnished 14 fragmentary fossils, 6 of them tusk or root remains. Particularly interesting is the occurrence of a pair of cones from a molar of Anancus. The scrappy elephantid material from Makapansgat may be referred tentatively to an early stage of the Elephas recki lineage, as also a mandible fragment from Sterkfontein with the two anterior milk teeth. An anterior milk tooth from Swartkrans Member 3 exhibits broader and higher lamellae than in E. recki and most probably belongs to the more advanced E. iolensis to which most of the Vaal River elephants have been referred.
Proboscidea, Plio-Pleistocene