Access to Social Protection by People Living with, at Risk of, or Afected by HIV in Eswatini, Malawi, Tanzania, and Zambia: Results from Population‑Based HIV Impact Assessments

We aimed to measure social protection coverage among the general population, women and men living with HIV (WLHIV, MLHV), female and male sex workers (FSW, MSW), men who have sex with men (MSM), adolescent girls young women (AGYW), and orphans vulnerable children (OVC) in Eswatini, Malawi, Tanzania, and Zambia. We used Population-Based HIV Impact Assessment data. We operationalised social protection benefits as external economic support from private and public sources to the household in the last three or 12 months. We estimated survey-weighted proportions and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each population receiving social protection benefits. The sample size ranged from 10,233 adults ages 15-59 years in Eswatini to 29,638 in Tanzania. In the surveyed countries, social protection coverage among the general population was lower than the global average of 45%, ranging from 7.7% (95% CI 6.7%-8.8%) in Zambia to 39.6% (95% CI 36.8%-42.5%) in Eswatini. In Malawi and Zambia, social protection coverage among OVC, AGYW, SW, MSM, and people living with HIV (PLHIV) was similar to the general population. In Eswatini, more AGWY reported receiving social projection benefits than older women and more men not living with HIV reported receiving social protection benefits than MLHIV. In Tanzania, more WLHIV than women not living with HIV, MLHIV than men not living with HIV, and FSW than women who were not sex workers reported receiving social protection benefits. More data on access to social protection benefits by PLHIV or affected by HIV are needed to estimate better their social protection coverage.
Adolescent girls and young women; Cash transfers; Men who have sex with men; People living with HIV; Sex workers; Social protection