Insect faunas of South Africa from the upper permian and the Permian/Triassic boundary

van Dijk, D. E.
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Bernard Price Institute for Palaeontological Research
Those sites in South Africa where more than one insect fossil specimen has been found have been interpreted as younger than Middle Triassic or as Late Permian. One site which has yielded a number of specimens and is apparently near the Permian/Triassic boundary is a quarry in the town of Bulwer KwaZulu-Natai. There are six sites with more than one insect specimen which are stratigraphically lower than Bulwer, namely Escourt (a new site), Far End, Mooi River (National Road), Mount West, Balgowan and Lidgetton. According to the 1984 1: 1 000 000 Geological Map of South em Africa Bulwer is situated in the Tarkastad Subgroup of the Beaufort Group near its lower boundary; the Tarkastad has been considered as Triassic. The remaining sites, except Balgowan and Lidgetton, fall in the Estcourt Formation of the Beaufort Group, as do all the sites with single Late Permian specimens except for one similarly aged specimen from the more easterly Emakwezeni Formation. The stratigraphically lowest sites are Lidgetton and slightly younger Balgowan; both are mapped as VoIksrust Formation of the Ecca Group. An analysis is made of vertical distribution of taxa, with those of Lidgetton and Balgowan grouped together as a lower unit, of Bulwer as upper unit, and of the Estcourt Formation sites and Emakwezini site as a middle unit. No obvious break between the three units has been noted.
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Insects, Upper Permian; Permian/Triassic Boundary; Estcourt Formation; VoIksrust Formation; Tarkastad Subgroup.