A cross-sectional observational study of the vitamin D status in children with chronic kidney disease at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg academic hospital

Raga, Shirika V
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Introduction Vitamin D has numerous important functions in the human body. There is limited data available regarding vitamin D status in children with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) in South Africa. Objectives To determine the vitamin D status, as well as factors that affect it, in children with CKD in Johannesburg, South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional observational study was performed on 69 patients who attended the Renal Outpatient Clinic, and required routine phlebotomy, at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital, Division of Paediatric Nephrology, between 20/08/2013 and 20/05/2014. Results 71% (n=49) of patients in our study sample were vitamin D sufficient. Significant factors that influenced vitamin D status included albumin levels and the presence of Nephrotic syndrome with relapse. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between albumin and vitamin D (p=0.00). As albumin levels increased so did the vitamin D levels. Patients with Nephrotic Syndrome with relapse had significantly lower vitamin D levels compared to patients with Nephrotic Syndrome in remission (p=0.00). Conclusion The majority of children with Chronic Kidney Disease in Johannesburg, South Africa, are vitamin D sufficient. This is reassuring as it implies that there is no need for routine vitamin D supplementation in this sample of children. However patients, especially those with nephrotic syndrome with relapse, still need to be screened for vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency and supplemented if necessary.
A research report submitted to the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree in Masters of Medicine in Paediatrics (MMed) Johannesburg, May 2015