The prevalence of recurrent ameloblastoma at the Wits oral health centre

Chokoe, Nare Hemelton
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Abstract Background Ameloblastoma is a slow growing, locally invasive, benign tumour of odontogenic origin. Ameloblastoma is the most common odontogenic tumour with varying recurrence rates, depending on the adequacy of the tumour removal. A number of factors including inadequate removal of tumour have been associated with recurrence Aim The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of recurrent ameloblastoma in patients treated at the Wits Oral Health Centre. Methods This study was a retrospective analysis of 246 records of patients diagnosed with ameloblastoma over a 24 year period (January 1992 to December 2015) in order to determine factors associated with recurrence. Descriptive statistics of mean, standard deviation, frequencies, percentages and proportions were used to summarize the data. Chi- squared and multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association between the variables and recurrence associated with AMB. Results Males (49.6%) and females (50.4%) were equally affected with a mean age of 31 years (range 7-82 years). AMB affected the mandible (96%) more than the maxilla (4%). Multicystic AMB represented the majority (76.8%) of cases. Most AMB’s (92.7%) presented with bone perforation. Nineteen cases (7.7%) recurred, mostly in soft tissues, fifteen of which were treated radically and four conservatively. Fifteen (78.95%) recurrent AMB’s presented within 10 years of surgical treatment with the remainder (2, 1 and 1) presenting 13, 17 and 21 years post-treatment, respectively. AMB’s larger than 4cm in greatest diameter were associated with 84.21% of the recurrences. Multicystic AMB accounted for 84.21% of the recurrences. Conclusions This study is in agreement with most studies with regard to demographic data and clinicopathological features of AMB. Large multicystic AMB with soft tissue encroachment have a high propensity to recur even when treated by radical resection. Recurrence is a significant associated with histological margins and the surgical method of treatment.
A research report submitted to the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Dentistry, June 2018