A Phosphate Analysis of Stone-Walled Structures in the Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve

Ensor-Smith, Jesse
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With the purpose of confirming the “kraal index” created by Sadr and Rodier (2012), a group of stone-walled structures in the Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve were selected for study. Confirming this involved testing for livestock presence in the inner enclosures of Group III stone-walled complexes. Phosphate testing of the inner enclosures revealed the absence of evidence showing the presence of livestock occupation. This may be because of the phosphate testing method used. It may also be because of different culture factors involving the recycling of dung as fuel and kraal maintenance. The probability of each hypothesis is weighed up against the supporting data captured by the phosphate analyses.
Research Report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the Degree of BSc Honours in Archaeology
archaeology, soil phosphate analysis, pre-colonial stone walled structures, Iron Age, South Africa