Research Outputs (Therapeutic Sciences)

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This collection hosts published and unpublished research articles, conference papers and book chapters authored by Wits academics and researchers.


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Now showing 1 - 10 of 10
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    Antimicrobial Stewardship in PublicSector Hospitals in KwaZuluNatal South Africa
    Sarentha Chetty; Millidhashni Reddy; Yogandree Ramsamy; Vusi C. Dlamini; Rahendhree Reddy-Naidoo; Sabiha Y. Essack
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    Prevalence of excess weight and associated socio-demographic factors among postmenopausal women: A population-based study in Ghana
    (AOSIS, 2023) Isaac Mensah Bonsu; Corlia Brandt; Adedayo T. Ajidahun; Monday O. Moses; Hellen Myezwa
    Background: Excess weight (obesity and overweight) is a pervasive condition that is considered a global epidemic and a threat to public health. Furthermore, numerous changes in fat deposits occur with the advent of menopause, leading to a change in the distribution of body fat. Knowledge of sociodemographic factors and prevalence can inform the effective management of these women. Aim: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of excess weight among postmenopausal women in Ghana’s Bono East (Techiman) region. Setting: This study was conducted in Bono East regional capital, Techiman, Ghana. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted over 5 months at Bono East regional capital, Techiman in Ghana. Anthropometric parameters such as body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were obtained using physical measurements while socio-demographic data were gathered using questionnaires. Data analysis was performed using IBM SPSS 25. Results: The mean age of the 378 women who participated in the study was 60.09 ± 6.24 years. Body mass index, WHtR and WHR indicated excess weight of 73.2%, 91.8% and 91.0%, respectively. Education and ethnicity were predictors of excess weight (WHR). Women of the Ga tribe with high school education have 4.7- and 8.6-times increased odds of having excess weight. Conclusions: There are higher prevalence rates of excess weight (obesity and overweight) among postmenopausal women using BMI, WHtR and WHR. Education and ethnicity are predictors of excess weight. Contribution: The study’s findings can be used to develop interventions that focus on addressing excess weight in postmenopausal women within the Ghanaian context. Keywords: desirable weight; body mass index; obesity; postmenopausal; waist-to-height ratio; waist-to-hip ratio; prevalence.
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    The Application of 3DPrinting and NAnotechnology for the Targeted Treatment of Osteosarcoma
    Ayesha Suleman; Pierre Kondiah; Mostafa Mabrouk; Yahya Choonara
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    Strategies to strengthen the provision of mental health care at the primary care setting An evidence map
    (2019-09-06) Mapanga W; Casteleijn J; Ramiah C
    Abstract In a deinstitutionalised mental health care system, those with mental illness require complex, multidisciplinary and intersectoral care at the primary or community service setting. This paper describes an Evidence Map of different strategies to strengthen the provision of mental health care at the primary health care (PHC) setting, the quality of the evidence, and knowledge gaps. Electronic and reference searching yielded 2666 articles of which 306 qualified for data extraction. A systematic review methodology identified nine different strategies that strengthen the provision of mental healthcare and these strategies are mapped in line with the outcomes they affect. The top three strategies that were reported the most, included strategies to empower families, carers and patients; integration of care or collaborative interventions; and e-health interventions. The least reported strategy was task shifting. The Evidence Map further shows the amount and quality of evidence supporting each of the listed strategies, and this helps to inform policy design and research priorities around mental health. This is the first systematic Evidence Map to show the different strategies that strengthen the provision of mental healthcare at PHC setting and the impact these strategies have on patient, hospital and societal level indicators.
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    The use of VTE prophylaxis in relation to patient risk profiling(TUNE-IN) Wave 2 Study
    (2014-12) Jacobson, B F; Louw, S; Riback, W J
    Background: The TUNE-IN (The Use of VTE prophylaxis in relatioN to patiEnt risk profiling) study evaluated venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk assessment and prophylaxis in private medical and surgical inpatients in Gauteng Province, South Africa. The study concluded that of the 608 patients enrolled, 54.1% were clinically evaluated to be at risk for VTE. A VTE risk assessment model (RAM), the Caprini score, increased the rate to 74.6%. Objectives: TUNE-IN Wave 2, an extension of TUNE-IN, was conducted on a national level including the public sector, focusing on surgical inpatients. Methods. The study was a national, prospective, non-interventional, multisite, epidemiological disease registry enrolling 453 surgical inpatients. The perceived clinical VTE risk, VTE risk score on Caprini RAM, VTE prophylaxis and clinical details were documented during a baseline visit. A bleeding risk score was provided. Results: Of the cohort, 269 patients (59.4%) were assessed to be at risk for VTE before applying the RAM. All patients (100%), however, were at risk on the RAM score. Early mobilisation and assessment of the VTE risk as low were the most frequent reasons for non-prescription of prophylaxis. Only 15 patients in the private and 2 in the public sector were assessed as having a bleeding risk. Chemoprophylaxis differed between the healthcare sectors, with low-molecular-weight heparin predominating in the private sector and unfractionated heparin being prescribed only in the public sector. Conclusion: VTE risk assessment and prophylaxis need to improve in both the public and the private sectors. A formal RAM will improve identification of patients at risk of VTE.