Research Outputs (Human and Community Development)

Permanent URI for this collection


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 13 of 13
  • Item
    Sleep and daytime sleepiness in methylphenidate medicated and un-medicated children with ttention-deficit/hyperactivitydisorder (ADHD)
    (African Journal of Psychiatry, 2008) Cockcroft, K; Ashwal, J; Bentley, A
    Objective: Excessive daytime sleepiness due to any cause can result in various symptoms similar to those used for the diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A common treatment for children diagnosed with ADHD is methylphenidate which is also used to treat excessive daytime sleepiness. This paper reports on a study which compared the perceived levels of daytime sleepiness and prevalence of sleep disorders in medicated and un-medicated children with ADHD. Method: The sample consisted of two matched groups of children who had been formally diagnosed with ADHD. One group (n=12) was taking immediate release methylphenidate twice daily, while the other group (n=11) had never, and were not currently, taking any medication. The two groups, as well as their parents, rated their levels of daytime sleepiness at three points in a single day. Results: Significantly higher levels of daytime sleepiness were reported by the parents of the un-medicated children between the hours of 13:00 and 15:00, compared to the medicated children. The medicated children became increasingly sleepier from the first to the second measurement in both the morning and afternoon. There was no significant difference in the number of sleep disorders/disruptions reported by the parents of either group. Conclusion: In a group of children with ADHD taking methylphenidate, there was a significant increase in sleepiness a few hours after taking the medication, which may then have a significant impact on their learning. The data also imply that part of the mechanism of action of methylphenidate effects in these children may be by reduction of daytime sleepiness
  • Item
    Use of the 1996 Griffiths Mental Deveiopment Scales for infants: a piiot study with a Black, South African sample
    (Joumal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 2007) Amod, Z; Cockcroft, K; Soellaart, B
    Over the last few years, researchers have made a significant effort to address the need for more reiiabie and vaiid assessment measures for South Africa. The objective of this study was to acquire empiricai data regarding the use and appiication of the Griffiths iVIentai Deveiopment Scaies with Biaci« South African infants
  • Item
    (Per Linguam, 2008) Osman, R; Cockcroft, K; Kajee, A
    This article reports on English second language (ESL) students’ experiences of academic writing in a university setting. It draws on the notion of community of practice to explain that it is not sufficient for academic literacy courses to concern themselves only with the questions relating to the development of student academic literacy. Rather they should also be concerned with how students learn in social contexts and what knowledge is included and what knowledge is excluded. Such an orientation is vital because academic writing in the context of the university is more than just the ability to read and write, it is often the basis for the evaluation of students and, as such, becomes a powerful gatekeeper.
  • Item
    The Fallible Phallus: A discourse analysis of male sexuality in a South African men’s interest magazine
    (Psychological Society of South Africa, 2008) Schneider, V; Cockcroft, K; Hook, D
    This article presents a discourse analysis of the constructions of male sexuality in the South African publication Men’s Health. The focus of the analysis was a series of monthly featured articles on best sexual practices and behaviour. Since the magazine’s content appears to confront men with, on the one hand, the construction of the ideal, potent phallus, and, on the other hand, the fallibility inherent in attempting to live up to this ideal, the overarching discourse in the texts was termed the ‘Fallible Phallus’. By stipulating ideal sexual experiences and then juxtaposing these descriptions with the threat of those moments not occurring, a paradox is created in the texts between the phallic dominance of masculinity and the anxieties and insecurities that may result from sexual failure. The Fallible Phallus discourse is a synthesis of four subsidiary themes derived from the texts, namely the male sexual drive theme, the inadequacies of male sexuality, the rule book of sexual practices, and the problematic nature of female sexuality. In the discussion of these themes, it is suggested that the texts use male sexual performance as a yardstick for assessing level of masculinity.
  • Item
    Effects of Mediated Learning Experience, Tutor Support and Peer Collaborative Learning on Academic Achievement and IntellectualFunctioning among College Students
    (Journal of Psychology in Africa, 2009) Seabi, J; Cockcroft, K; Fridjhon, P
    The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of mediated learning experience, tutor support and peer collaborative learning on academic achievement and intellectual functioning. The sample comprised 111 first year engineering students (males=38, females=73, age range =16-23), who were randomly assigned to three learning conditions (Mediation: n=45, Tutor: n=36 and Peer: n=30). Data on academic achievement were based on mid-year and end-year examination results, while intellectual functioning was measured by the Ravens Advanced Progressive Matrices and the Organiser. Paired t-tests and Analysis of Covariances (ANCOVAs) were conducted to compare pre- and post- test academic and intellectual scores and comparison between the groups. Following a five-week intervention period, significant improvements in academic and intellectual functioning were found within the Mediation Group. The findings revealed that intervention involving mediation processes was more effective not only in enhancing students’ intellectual functioning but also improving their academic achievements.
  • Item
    Speech Intelligibility and Marital Communication in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
    (Sage, 2010-06-25) Joubert, K; Bornman, J; Alant, E
    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a rapidly progressive neuromuscular disease, has a devastating impact not only on individuals diagnosed with ALS but also their spouses. Speech intelligibility, often compromised as a result of dysarthria, affects the couple’s ability to maintain effective, intimate communication. The purpose of this exploratory study was to determine the association between the deteriorating speech of persons with ALS (PALS) and couples’ perceptions of marital communication. There were two participant groups: (a) persons with ALS (PALS) and (b) their spouses. Data were collected over a 12-month period through the administration of objective and subjective measures. A review of the findings suggested a positive relation between declining speech intelligibility and a couple’s perception of marital communication. A holistic approach to communication intervention should be adopted for PALS, as communication as a means of facilitating and maintaining intimacy in the marital relationship is particularly pertinent to this population.
  • Item
    The influence of epidural anesthesia on new-born hearing screening
    (2010-06-25) Khoza-Shangase, K; Joubert, K
    OBJECTIVE: The main aim was to establish if epidural anesthesia had an influence on new-born hearing screening results in newborns born via elective Cesarean section in healthy pregnancies. Specific objectives included determining screening results in a group of newborns born to mothers who had undergone epidural anesthesia during Cesarean section childbirth (experimental group); and comparing the findings with those of a group of newborns born to mothers who had undergone natural delivery without epidural anesthesia (comparison group); while establishing if the time of screening following delivery had any effect on the overall screening results
  • Item
    Online flow experiences, problematic Internet use and Internet procrastination
    (2011-05-06) Thatcher, Andrew; Wretschko, Gisela; Fridjhon, Peter
  • Item
    Critical reflections on collecting class attendance registers in large Psychology classes
    (2011-05-06) Thatcher, Andrew; Rosentein, David; Grootenhuis, Geertje; Haiden, Gillian
  • Item
    A case for using a social cognitive model to explain intention to pirate software
    (2011-05-06) Garbharran, Ameetha, Thatcher, Andrew
  • Item
    What's in a name
    (Blackwell, 2010-09-15) Milani, Tommaso