AJIC Issue 29, 2022
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- ItemAJIC Issue 29, 2022 - Full Issue(2022-06-30)Articles on digital vaccination records; defining decentralisation in permissionless blockchain systems; copyright flexibilities for combatting COVID-19; value creation and socioeconomic inclusion in maker communities; public-speaking anxiety among novice university instructors; and interactions between primary school teachers and parents during COVID-19.
- ItemAJIC Issue 29, 2022 - Full Issue - Print-on-Demand(2022-06-30)Articles on digital vaccination records; defining decentralisation in permissionless blockchain systems; copyright flexibilities for combatting COVID-19; value creation and socioeconomic inclusion in maker communities; public-speaking anxiety among novice university instructors; and interactions between primary school teachers and parents during COVID-19.
- ItemDigital Vaccination Records: Exploring Stakeholder Perceptions in Gauteng, South Africa(LINK Centre, University of the Witwatersrand (Wits), Johannesburg, 2022-06-30) Moonsamy, Wesley; Singh, ShawrenElectronic health (eHealth) is one of the focus areas of the South African Department of Health (DoH), with the ultimate goal being the development of an electronic health record (EHR) for every citizen. A commonly used subset of eHealth data, vaccination records, is still not yet fully digitised in South Africa. This study aimed to determine the perceptions of key stakeholders (doctors, nurses, parents, and school administrators) about a digital system for vaccination records for minors in South Africa’s Gauteng Province. Using a prototype online, cloud-based vaccine records management system created during the research, called e-Vaccination, quantitative and qualitative interaction-related data from 118 participants was collected using a five-point Likert-scale questionnaire. The questionnaire was based on Lund’s (2001) USE user perception framework, which considers usefulness, satisfaction, ease of use, and ease of learning. This study found that the participants supported the use of the digital vaccine records management system, with an emphasis on five identified factors: user friendliness, graphical design, practicality, user experience, and usability. Accordingly, this article recommends that policymakers and system designers carefully consider these factors in the design and development of South Africa’s digital vaccination records management system.
- ItemDefining Decentralisation in Permissionless Blockchain Systems(LINK Centre, University of the Witwatersrand (Wits), Johannesburg, 2022-06-30) Bezuidenhout, Riaan; Nel, Wynand; Maritz, JacquesThe term decentralised as a description of the architecture, operation, and governance of permissionless blockchain systems has become ubiquitous. However, in these contexts, the term decentralised has no clear definition. Blockchain ecosystems are complex, and thus it is essential to address confusion among stakeholders about their nature and promote understanding of the intentions and consequences of their implementation. This article offers a theoretical definition of the term decentralised in the context of permissionless blockchain systems. It is proposed that five inextricable and interconnected aspects are required, at a minimum, to warrant a claim that a permissionless blockchain system is decentralised. These aspects are disintermediation, a peer-to-peer network, a distributed blockchain data structure, algorithmic trust, and open-source principles. The relationship between the five aspects is discussed, and it is argued that decentralisation is not binary but exists on a spectrum. Any variation in one or more aspects may impact the system’s decentralised nature as a whole. The researchers identify areas where further investigation in this field is required and propose instances where the knowledge garnered may be used.
- ItemInternational Copyright Flexibilities for Prevention, Treatment and Containment of COVID-19(LINK Centre, University of the Witwatersrand (Wits), Johannesburg, 2022-06-30) Flynn, Sean; Nkrumah, Erica; Schirru, LucaMost policymaking attention with respect to intellectual property barriers to COVID-19 prevention, treatment and containment has been focused on patents. This focus is reflected in the World Trade Organisation (WTO) Ministerial Decision on the TRIPS Agreement, adopted on 17 June 2022, which provides a limited waiver of TRIPS rules on compulsory licences for production of COVID-19 vaccines. The original WTO proposal for a TRIPS waiver, however, explicitly applied to all forms of intellectual property, including copyright. This article outlines the numerous ways in which copyright can create barriers to addressing COVID-19. It also provides a description of international copyright treaty provisions that permit uses of copyright materials in response to the barriers identified, despite the exclusion of copyright from the final TRIPS waiver.