Research Outputs (Economics and Finance)

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    Immigration Internal Migration and Crime in South Africa A multilevel model analysis
    (Wiley Online Library, 2019-09) Kollamparambil, U
    A review of South African literature on crime confirms the lack of a study that considers the impact of migration on the crime rate in the country. The high levels of crime in South Africa aside, additional motivation behind the study has been the increasing rhetoric in media and by politicians insinuating the prominent role of foreign immigrants in the high crime levels of the country. While this is the first attempt to study this relationship in the South African context, it also stands apart from existing studies undertaken in the developed countries by accounting for both internal migrants as well as foreign immigrants. Further, the study claims the use of multi-level regression estimations as an improvement from the existing studies on the issue by accounting for variance clustering across different spatial levels. In all the estimated models, internal migrant ratio came out as being positively and significantly related to crime rates across five different crime categories, with the sole exception of sexual crime rate. There was no evidence of foreign immigrant ratio impacting on crime rate in any of the crimes analysed except crime relating to property. Further, income inequality and sex ratio figure as determining factors across most types of crime in South Africa. © The Authors 2018. Development Policy Review © 2018 Overseas Development Institute
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    The effect of transformational leadership on intention to quit through perceived organisational support organisational justice and trust
    (AOSIS (pty) Ltd, 2019) Engelbrecht, , A; Samuel, O.M.
    Background: The literature has extensively presented evidence to establish that employee turnover is costly and destructive to organisational processes and outcomes. Organisations in South Africa are experiencing a high rate of turnover and it is becoming increasingly difficult to retain employees whose skills are critical to organisational success. This provides a compelling necessity to direct research attention to turnover intention in order to avoid actual turnover. Aim: The purpose of this article was to use partial least squares to test the relationships among selected antecedents of intention to quit. Setting: The study was conducted using employees in organisations that were surveyed in both public and private sectors in the Western Cape, Eastern Cape and Gauteng provinces of South Africa. Methods: The study employed a survey research design using a quantitative research strategy. Data collected from 207 conveniently sampled respondents were used to validate a structural model developed through the review of existing literature. A standardised measurement instrument consisting of all the variables under investigation was used for data collection. Results: The results indicate the following path sequences in predicting employee turnover intention: Transformational leadership through perceived organisational support and transformational leadership through organisational justice impact intention to quit. However, the path sequence from transformational leadership through organisational trust impacting intention to quit was not confirmed. Conclusion: A replication of this study using a longitudinal research design is recommended in order to overcome the methodological limitations of the current study. The conceptual model developed in this study provides relationships that could be used as guidelines to effectively manage the retention of key employees in organizations. © 2019. The Authors. Licensee: AOSIS.
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    An investigation into the factors influencing the purchase intentions of smart wearable technology by students
    (International Association of Online Engineering, 2019) Nkonko, E.K.; Chiliya, N; Chuchu, T; Ndoro, T
    The purpose of this study was to examine the factors which influence the purchase intentions of Smart wearable technology by students in South Africa. The researchers, guided by literature developed a conceptual framework with five constructs, namely, product quality, design, price, consumer attitudes and purchase intentions. The study followed a quantitative research design. Data was collected from 416 registered students at a selected higher education institution in South Africa who were older than 18 years. Data analysis techniques comprised of structural equation modelling which focused on confirmatory factory analysis to confirm conceptual relations and causal relations between the factors. SPSS 23 and AMOS 23 software were used to perform the data analysis. The results revealed that product quality and product design had a significant positive effect on purchase intentions. Price and attitudes were found to be mediating the effect of product quality and product design on purchase intentions. The paper contributes to existing literature on the purchase intentions of Smart wearable technology. Furthermore, it provides technology organisations with adequate insight into the factors which influence the purchase of Smart wearable technology. © 2019 International Association of Online Engineering.
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    Supply chain partnership, supply chain collaboration and supply chain integration as the antecedents of supply chain performance
    (AOSIS, 2019-02-26) Mofokeng, T.M.; Chinomona, R
    Background: It is understood that improving performance has become an important objective of supply chains. As such, strategies have been adopted as an effort towards increasing performance. Amongst these strategies, partnership, collaboration and integration have been identified. A mutual advantage of these approaches is that they facilitate cohesion between parties where knowledge and resources are pooled together and shared with the purpose of achieving optimum results. However, it is observed that the extent to which partnership, collaboration and integration affect supply chain performance collectively is a research void. Objectives: This study intended to examine the influence of partnership, collaboration and integration on supply chain performance, particularly within the small and medium enterprise (SME) sector. The theory of relational view was adopted to support the study’s conceptual model. Method: The study used SmartPLS to analyse the data. Results: Three hypotheses were empirically substantiated using a sample of 271 SMEs situated in Gauteng. Conclusion: The findings revealed that the research constructs partnership, collaboration and integration influence supply chain performance in a positive way. Implications of the study are further provided. © 2019. The Authors.
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    A review of South Africa’s National Research Foundation’s ratings methodology from a social science perspective
    (Academy of Science of South Africa, 2018) Callaghan, C
    One of South Africa's National Research Foundation's (NRF) activities is to award ratings to academics who apply according to predefined categories. Explicitly or not, these ratings are part of submissions academics make for promotions and for employment in South African universities. As such, methodological assessment of the validity of this system is important. This paper seeks to conceptually evaluate certain characteristics of this system against certain general principles of reliability and validity. On the basis of the results of this evaluation, it is argued that assumptions that the NRF rating system is always valid or reliable as a differentiator of individual academics cannot be made unconditionally. Using Management Science as an example of a social science field that draws from multidisciplinary theoretical and methodological frameworks, this paper identifies certain validity issues associated with the current NRF rating system, and makes recommendations for improvements. Significance: •Certain validity issues are highlighted and arguments are made to improve the methodology used by the NRF to rate researchers. •Issues related to multidisciplinarity and mode two knowledge production are considered. •Technological advances that have made it possible for scientific measurement of research productivity and impact are discussed. •Problems with subjective methodologies are identified, together with their ethical consequences. © 2018 The Author(s).
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    Business rescue practices in South Africa: An explorative view
    (AOSIS (pty) Ltd, 2018-06-20) Naidoo, T; Patel, A; Padia, N
    Given the seemingly low rate of success of the current business rescue regime (at just 13.6% as at June 2015), this study sought to identify whether the current business rescue regime in South Africa realises its intended objectives and why this meeting of objectives or failure to do so may be the case. It focuses on practical issues and the investigation is undertaken through interviews with business rescue practitioners who are the facilitators of business rescue. The findings show that there is a lack of clarity in the definition of success which may be cause for concern and that, despite its consistency with other jurisdictions, in the views of practitioners, the success rate is expected to improve. The study finds that there is a lack of prompt action when signs of financial distress are noted and a lack of funding for companies in business rescue. The experience of the practitioner has a significant impact on the success or failure of the rescue and may be one of the reasons for the current low rate of success of the regime, while the specific qualifications of the practitioner play a smaller role. The plan is imperative but there is often a lack of information and insufficient time allocated to its preparation. Consistency of Court judgements also has a bearing on success of business rescue, while consistency with provisions of other jurisdictions is not considered to be important.
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    Can progressive macroeconomic policy address growth and employment while reducing inequality in South Africa
    (2019) Padayachee, M
    This article aims to set out some progressive, mainly post-Keynesian, macroeconomic policy ideas for debate and further research in the context of macroeconomic challenges faced by South Africa today. Despite some successes, including at reducing poverty, the South African economy has been characterised by low growth, rising unemployment and increasing inequality, which together with rampant corruption and governance failures combine to threaten the very core of the country’s stability and democracy. The neo-liberal economic policies that the African National Congress–led government surprisingly adopted in 1996 in order to assuage global markets sceptical of its historical support for dirigiste economic policy, have simply not worked. Appropriate progressive macroeconomic interventions are urgently needed to head off the looming prospect of a failed state in the country which Nelson Mandela led to democracy after his release from prison in February 1990. What happens in Africa’s southern tip should still matter for progressives all around the world. The article draws on both history and theory to demonstrate the roots of such progressive heterodox economic thinking and support for a more carefully coordinated activist state-led macroeconomic policy, both in general terms and in the South African context. It shows that such approaches to growth and development – far from being populist – also have a rich history and respectable theoretical pedigree behind them and are worthy of inclusion in the South African policy debate.
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    Measuring the effect of Evaluation Capacity Building Initiatives in Africa: A review
    (African Evaluation Journal, 2017-04-26) Ms Candice, Morkel; Mr Mokgophana, Ramasobana
    The growing demand for evidence to support policy decisions, guide resource allocation and demonstrate results has elevated the need for expertise in monitoring and evaluation (M&E). Despite the mushrooming of short courses in M&E, their impact on improving the capacity to meet the demand has not been adequately and comprehensively measured or evaluated. The purpose of this article was to highlight the need for improving the measurement of evaluation capacity building (ECB) to better understand what works in building M&E capacity in Africa.
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    The impact of corporate rebranding on brand equity and firm performance
    Nana, S; Tobias, M.J; Chiliya, N
    Rebranding has become a very important strategic tool for companies wanting to succeed in this ever-competitive business world using the principles of rebranding. Companies may occasionally discover that they may have to re-position the brand because customers change preferences and new competitors enter the market. Moreover, a strong brand enhances positive evaluations of a product’s quality, maintains a high level of product awareness, and provides a consistent image or brand personality. To keep up with fierce competition, companies may seek to transform their business due to changing business directions or adding extra business units. The main purpose of this study was therefore, to investigate the influence of rebranding on brand equity and firm performance. This study was quantitative in nature. Data were collected from 372 respondents using anonymously completed questionnaires. Research scales were operationalised on the basis of previous work. Proper modifications were made in order to fit the research context and purpose. “Rebranding” measure used five-item scales; “Store Layout” used a five item scale measure; “Franchising” used three item measure, “Brand Equity”; “ Perceived Quality “, “Brand Associations and Attributes” and “Firm Performance” all used a five item scale measure while “an customer experience ” used a six item scale measure. All measurement items were measure on a five-point Likert-type scale that was anchored by 1=strongly agree to 5= strongly disagree to express degree of agreement. The seven posited hypotheses were empirically tested. The results supported three hypotheses in a significant way and rejected four hypotheses. Important to note about the study findings is the fact that rebranding has no effect on the firm’s brand equity although brand equity has an influence on the firm’s performance. Notably too, the relationship between customer experience and firm performance is robust. This finding indicates that brand equity can have a strong influence without the influence of rebranding. A major implication for this study is that rebranding is a risky operation that needs to be carefully managed.
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    R&D failure and second generation R&D: New potentialities
    (2014) Callaghan, CW
    Ample incentives exist for firms to pursue product, service, or process innovations to increase their profitability. In contrast, few incentives exist for firms to pursue innovations that provide social externalities if these are not inherently profitable. This article provides an argument that first generation research and development (R&D), or R&D that does not utilise economies of scale (as second generation R&D does), cannot effectively provide societal innovation that is not incentivised by market forces. An example of an alternative model for global societal problem solving, based on second generation R&D, is offered.
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    Organisational support and its influence on teachers job satisfaction and job performance in Limpopo province of South Africa
    (2014) Chinomona, R
    The importance of organisational support is increasingly being recognized because of its potential positive influence on employee performance. However, studies that seek to investigate the influence of organisational support on the teachers’ job satisfaction and consequently their workplace performance at high school level have largely remained scant, particularly in developing countries of Southern Africa. Therefore, the primary objective of this study is to fill this void. Three research hypotheses are posited and a sample data of 162 collected from the Limpopo Province of South Africa is used to empirically test the hypotheses. The results of this study show that, organisational support positively influences teachers’job satisfaction and their job performance. Managerial implications of the findings are discussed and limitations and future research directions are indicated.
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    An exploratory study on the marketing strategies adopted by small micro and medium enterprises in Johannesburg Central Business District
    (2014) Mapila, K; Chiliya, N; Chiliya, W
    Over the years marketing theory development has been limited and small enterprises often have to rely on marketing models used in big businesses. There are a number of marketing strategies that are currently applied by large companies in South Africa which cannot be implemented by small retailers. This is because of the complexity of some of the marketing strategies alluded above are not suited to small retailers because of their limited educational background and resources. Facing the problem of intense competition, SMME entrepreneurs often have to rely on price and other short term strategies to market and sell their products to the ultimate consumer. Entrepreneurs are constantly faced with challenges that restrict their productivity and economic potential. SMMEs face the challenge of marketing their products and services properly to the right markets in order to get returns from their investments. The data for the study was collected by means of interviews. The study used a judgemental sampling. Findings from the study prove that entrepreneurs rely on word of mouth, reducing prices and other low cost promotional strategies for marketing and sale purposes. The findings indicate that it might be useful for SMME’s to change their promotional strategies to suit the South African consumer market to ensure long term profitability
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    The influence of information quality, system quality and service quality on student’s self-efficacy at institutions of higher learning in South Africa
    (2014) Chinomona, R
    The notion of improving student self-efficacy at institutions of higher learning has become a priority matter. There is a growing realization among institutions of higher learning that one way of achieving this, is by encouraging learners to make the best out of information technology use. It is therefore in this regards that this paper seeks to investigate the influence of information quality, system quality and service quality on student’s self-efficacy at institutions of higher learning in South Africa. To address this dearth, this study proposed three hypotheses that were validated using a sample of 271 university students in the Gauteng province. The findings indicated that there are positive relationships between the posited research variables. Managerial implications of the findings are discussed and limitations and future research directions are indicated.
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    The influence of website content on the purchase of pharmaceutical health products
    (2014) Jones, L; Chiliya, N
    The purpose of this research was to determine what web content, according to the perception of consumers and their purchase behaviour, are optimal for the healthcare industry and also understand which content factors are more important than others.A quantitative, single cross-sectional approach was undertaken. A convenience technique was used. Data was collected from a sample of 362 University students by means self-administered questionnaires.Regression analyses were conducted as means of data analysis. The study shows that consumers are significantly affected by the different types of content components incorporated into a webpage. Within these content components, consumers view quality information as more valuable as they are informed about products more effectively, relevant to their needs. This then influences the consumers’ information satisfaction. Once the consumer is satisfied with the information provided through the relevant content components, loyalty towards the firm is developed due to the consistent quality of the content thus, resulting in purchase behaviour. This shows that it is important for online health websites to provide relevant and quality information to in assist consumers in making an online purchase.
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    The relationship between SMEs and insurance providers in Nelson Mandela Metropolitan area, South Africa
    (2014) Chodokufa, K; Chiliya, N
    Media reports on the effects of climate change on Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in South Africa has increased over the past decade. The amount of loss in terms of assets and infrastructure suffered by SMEs is disturbing. Yet insurance providers are not eager to insure SMEs and prefer to deal larger organisations. An empirical study of 203 SMEs was done, structured questionnaires were administered to SME owners. Data was analysed and the results illustrated factors such as the reliability of an insurer, staff knowledge and brand name of the insurer have a great impact on the decision made by SMEs to build a relationship with insurance providers. The respondents, who had been approached by an insurance broker and received training, had a business relationship with an insurance provider. This helps to reach the conclusion that any form of interaction between SMEs and insurance providers helps to facilitate a business relationship
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    The influence of e-service quality on customer perceived value, customer satisfaction and loyalty in south africa
    (2014) Chinomona, R; Masinge, G; Sandada, M
    While researches on online shopping behaviour have been steadily increasing, they seem to be a paucity of studies that investigate the importance of E-service quality; customer perceived value and customer satisfaction that result in customer loyalty in online shopping perspective. The present research is an attempt to fill this gap by examining the relative influence of three antecedents of customer loyalty — e-service quality, customer satisfaction, and customer perceived value on consumer online shopping behaviour, using a sample of consumers in Gauteng Province of South Africa. The central argument of this paper is that online shopping behavior can be understood from the strength of loyalty outcomes. Six hypotheses are posited and in order to empirically test these hypotheses, a sample data set of 150 was used. Three hypotheses were supported while three (H1,H2 and H5) was rejected. Drawing from the study findings, this study provide tentative empirical support that online shopping behaviour can be influenced by e-service quality, customer satisfaction, loyalty and perceived value outcomes in Africa - a context that is often less researched on.
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    The effectiveness of product placement in music videos: A study on the promotion strategies for brands and products to target the Y generation in Johannesburg
    (2014) Omarjee, L; Chiliya, N
    Product placements are strategic brand placements within media that are meant to be noticed by the consumer, to further influence purchase intentions. Placements in music videos have grown in recent years however, there is little research on placements in this medium and available research has not measured the influence of product placement on purchase intention. The study addressed the gap where product placement in music videos was under researched. This paper investigated the effectiveness of brands and products placements in music videos in influencing the purchase intentions of the Y generation population living in Johannesburg. A self-administered research questionnaire was used to collect data through a quantitative research method by convenience sampling of 420 randomly chosen respondents, aged between 18-27, obtained from the University of the Witwatersrand and Johannesburg. A six minute music video stimulus was used for respondents to base their opinions about placements. The results indicate reliability of the constructs in the model developed as Cronbach Alphas were greater than 0.6 for the variables. The main findings show the variables individual factors and execution stimulus are significantly related to brand recall, brand recognition and brand choice. In turn, brand recall, brand recognition and brand choice influence the consumer’s purchase intentions. The strongest linear relationship existed between brand choice and purchase intention. Placement strategies are equally effective for consumers in the Y generation of differing genders, income brackers and age groups. The research reveals that music videos are an effective platform to reach the targeted Y generation population and the model adapted for placements in music videos shows the stages of the processing in the consumer’s mind from exposure to placements to the final purchase intention. The findings contribute to the knowledge of strategies marketers should use to promote brands and products to effectively target the South African Y generation.
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    Shock advertising: Not so shocking anymore. An investigation among Generation Y
    (2014) Urwin, B; Venter, M
    In today’s society, marketers are going to extreme measures to attract consumers’ attention in an attempt to break through advertising clutter. A widely used method is shock advertising, however, the effectiveness of this method is questionable. This study aimed to explore the effectiveness of shock advertising on Generation Y consumers in today’s society. Three variables were analyzed, namely, level of shock, norm violation and memory recall, with five different types of shock (impropriety, moral offensiveness, sexual references, disgusting images and religious taboos). The moderating effects of these relationships with gender, religion and personal identity were also explored. By means of a quantitative study, 300 university students were asked to complete questionnaires. The overall findings indicated that shock advertising has become obsolete and that marketers need to implement alternative ways of ‘breaking through the clutter’. This paper provides marketers with a better understanding of the (in)effectiveness of shock advertising and proposes the importance that marketers should alternative methods to capture the attention of consumers.
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    Revisiting employee motivation and job satisfaction within the context of an emerging economy: Theoretical representation and developing the model
    (2014) Ncube, CM; Samuel, MO
    The world’s economic attention is rapidly shifting towards the direction of emerging economies. In order to facilitate and accelerate this process, it is important that designated economic hubs are well positioned in terms of infrastructural and social development. This can only be achieved through an integrated human resource practices that recognises the importance of human beings (employees) as the most important factor for the success or failure of any social or economic project. This imperative therefore places employee motivation and job satisfaction in the forefront. It was against this background that this research was conducted to determine the level at which municipal employees of one of the world-class socio-economic cities in South Africa enjoyed job satisfaction using selected motivational variables. The study adopted a survey research method using quantitative research design. A measuring instrument with a Cronbach alpha coefficient of above 0.70 was developed and used to collect primary data from 300 employees of the municipal council. Main hypotheses were formulated and tested using both regression and correlation statistical analyses. Results show that intrinsic and extrinsic motivational variables impacted significantly on the level at which employees derived job satisfaction. Management can therefore develop a job satisfaction practice around identified motivational variables in order to maximise employee productivity and enhance quality service delivery.
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    Research productivity and values
    (2014) Callaghan, CW
    According to the predictions of convergence theory, the implementation of best practices derived from the global context has been found to be associated with increased performance for both individuals and organisations. However, the values systems of individuals and within organisations have been found to constrain the adoption of best practices. This research tested Schwartz’s basic human values theory and the specific influence of basic human values upon individual work performance in the form of research productivity. The self-enhancement dimension of hedonism was found to be negatively associated with Thompson Reuters (Institute for Scientific Information) and ProQuest International Bibliography of the Social Sciences accredited journal article publication; Department of Education accredited journal article publication; conference proceedings publication; conference presentations and book chapter publication. Worryingly, openness to change values were not found to be associated with higher levels of research productivity. These results are taken to support Kuhn’s theory of paradigmatic values constraints to knowledge creation and scepticism as to the extent to which scientific research productivity is indeed inherently objective or innovative in nature. Recommendations for research practitioners and for further research are offered.