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Item2017 CSI Handbook – 20th Edition(Trialogue Publication, 2017)Chapter 4: Local and global perspectives Criteria for determining strategic CSI and a profile of the recipient of the Trialogue Strategic CSI Award 2017, insights from The Trialogue Business in Society Conference 2017, key findings from CSI research conducted in Ghana and Kenya, and trends in global corporate giving. Item2019 Annual Report(CLEAR-AA, 2020-05) CLEAR-AAWe work to improve the way M&E is done. We help strengthen the ability to plan, report on what is being achieved and assess results. This is known as evaluation capacity development. We work with policy makers, parliamentarians, academia and M&E networks and practitioners. CLEAR-AA is one of six regional centres housed in academic institutions across the globe. The other CLEAR centers are in Senegal, Mexico, India, China and Brazil, and we are supported by the CLEAR global Initiative in Washington, DC. ItemA cross-country analysis investigating the impact of the 2008-09 Financial Crisis on the conduct of monetary policy(2021) Creamer, Kenneth and Lamperelli, DanielaTaylor Rule analysis is utilised to enable an analysis of how the 2008 Financial Crisis impacted on the conduct of monetary policy across various countries. Structural Break Analysis and Markov Switching (MS) Regressions are used in order to identify breaks and changes in the conduct of monetary policy as result of the Crisis. The study finds evidence of Crisis-related changes in monetary policy conduct in South Africa, as well as in the US, the UK, the Euro Area (the ECB), Colombia, Peru and South Korea. On the other hand, the results for Brazil, Mexico and Israel do not show conclusive differences in monetary policy conduct in the pre-Crisis and post-Crisis periods. Along with South Africa, there are only two other countries, namely Brazil and Mexico, whose smoothing parameters are larger in the post-Crisis period. Four out of the ten countries place a lower weight on inflation post-Crisis. Six central banks reduce their weighting on the output gap after the Crisis. ItemA framework for South African university students' online learning: social presence, digital skills and competencies(2022) Lubisi, NtombizethuOver the years, institutions of higher learning across the world have embraced the use of digital technology to facilitate learning. University students require digital skills and digital competencies to take full advantage of online learning. Additionally, one of the most important factors of students’ learning experience in an online environment is the sense of belonging. Students engaging in online learning geographically separated from their instructors and peers often feel isolated. The purpose of the study was to explore digital skills, digital competencies and social presence necessary for an effective South African university online learning. The study used the General Technology Competency and Use (GTCU) framework and the Social Presence Theory as a lens to explore the digital skills, digital competencies and social presence necessary for South African university online learning. A case study approach was used to study in-house first-year students in a South African university learning online. A mixed method research was selected due to its fitness to answer the proposed research questions. The data was collected via an online questionnaire and the semi-structured interviews at the University of the Witwatersrand in South Africa, Johannesburg. Quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics and the qualitative data was analysed using thematic analysis. Findings from the study indicated that the social-economic background does play an important role in in-house students learning online. The interaction was a challenge, participants felt isolated from their instructors which impacted their online learning experience. They did not feel a sense of belonging to their courses. The study will contribute to policies such as the South African National Development Plan (NDP) 2030 with the focus on lifelong learning, the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goal 2030 goal 4. It will also contribute to the university learning and teaching policies where online learning is concerned as well as assist University improve their online learning offering. Our study links to information systems and online learning at universities. ItemA tale of tweets: the influence of Twitter on the technology sector(2022) Eltringham, BradleyInvestor sentiment has emerged to be a very topical subject within the context of behavioural finance. In more recent times textual analysis has emerged to be one such way of attempting to quantify investor sentiment. This study utilises textual sentiment and attempts to examine the predictive power of social media networks with regard to the technology sector during the course of unprecedented market wide volatility as a consequence of a global pandemic. More specifically, this study analyses the association between tweet features (bullishness/sentiment , message volume and overall investor agreement ) and market features (daily trading volume, volatility and raw returns, closing price, intraday high, intraday low) with regard to the 10 current largest technology sector firms by market capitalisation. The study spans over the period of February 2016 to December 2021, which encompasses the COVID-19 pandemic. The first finding of this study indicates that most of the tweet features are observed to be contemporaneously associated to the stock returns of the ten biggest technology firms by market capitalisation. Second, the results show the that for the most part there is no monotonic relationship between tweet features and technology sector stock market returns with exception of the relationship between the magnitude of message agreement and stock returns. Third, there is no evidence that the past values of tweet features contain any useful information that could be used to predict future stock returns. Finally, by comparing the pre-COVID data and intra-COVID data, it is noted that for the most part there is no monotonic relationship between tweet features and technology sector stock market returns. There is however evidence that the use of increased usage of Twitter as an investment tool following an exogenous shock to the market. ItemA Wealth Tax for South Africa(2021-01) Chatterjee, Aroop; Czajka, Léo; Gethin, AmoryThis paper considers the feasibility of implementing a progressive wealth tax to collect additional government revenue to both reinforce fiscal sustainability in the wake of the COVID-19 crisis and reduce persistent extreme inequality in South Africa. Drawing on our new companion paper, we first identify the tax base and discuss the design of potential tax schedules. Testing alternative tax schedules, we estimate how much additional revenue could be collected from a progressive tax on the top 1% richest South Africans. Our results show that under conservative assumptions, a wealth tax could raise between 70 and 160 billion Rands—1.5% to 3.5% of the South African GDP.We discuss in turn how sensitive our estimates are to assumptions on (1) mismeasurement of wealth and (2) tax avoidance and evasion, based on the most recent tax policy literature. We examine technical issues related to the enforcement of the tax, and how third-party reporting and pre-filled declarations could be used to optimize measurement of taxable wealth and minimize evasion and avoidance opportunities. Finally, we explain how this new tax could interact with other capital related taxes already in place in South Africa, and discuss the potential impact on growth. ItemAcceptance of online shopping by individuals in South African townships(2018) Dzimati, ShoraiInternet connectivity has revolutionised the way we conduct our day-to-day activities like banking, communication, travelling arrangements and shopping. Internet has enabled the birth of many technological innovations throughout the world including online shopping. Online shopping is the process of purchasing goods and services from online stores also known as e-tailers over the internet. In developing countries like South Africa, buying and selling of commodities makes up most of the economic activities. Individuals. With the increase in internet connectivity, individuals now have an option to replace the traditional brick and mortar shopping with online shopping. Although online technology is already in maturity phase in the developed countries, for South Africa as a developing country, it is still in its infancy. This might be attributed to factors that may include late penetration of the internet as well as logistical challenges which common in most developing countries. South Africa as a developing country needs technology to grow its economy into a developed country and online technology is one of the key technologies required to achieve this. The majority South African population comes from the townships which means that township dwellers constitute the majority of the consumers. Online shopping technology has potential to contribute towards the growth of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) which is a key part of the South African economy. This demographic set up in South Africa makes it critical for business and academics to understand the acceptance of technology in South African townships, with online shopping being one of these key technologies. The study investigated factors affecting acceptance of online shopping by individuals in South African townships using the adapted unified theory of technology acceptance theory (UTAUT). Using a hypothetical model to test various hypotheses, the study followed a positivist research paradigm. Through the theoretical lens of the adapted unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT). A survey was used as the data collection method. The hypotheses were tested and analysed to further understand the factors affecting acceptance of online shopping by individuals in South Africa. Findings of this study revealed that the elements of the adapted unified theory of technology acceptance theory (UTAUT) are strong in predicting acceptance of online shopping in South African townships. Elements like performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence as well as trust proved to be significant in predicting acceptance of online technology. This research will assist academics and practitioners to further understand the acceptance of online shopping by individuals. ItemACCESS TO EDUCATION AND SCHOOL FEES FOR REFUGEES AND MIGRANTS IN CENTRAL JOHANNESBURG(2014-02-19) Sepuru, Thabo DominicEducation is regarded universally as a fundamental human right and is recognized officially by many countries including South Africa. South Africa is signatory to a number of United Nations (UN) Conventions relating to refugees and acquired certain obligations towards refugees such as the provision of basic education. For the children of refugees and asylum seekers, education has a developmental as well as an integrative and rehabilitative value. While there is recognition of education as a fundamental human right, the realization of this right is impeded by a number of obstacles. School fees have been cited as one of the barriers. In respect of the charging of fees by schools, South Africa seeks to ensure the realization of education as a fundamental and constitutional right by everyone regardless of their nationality, race, gender, religion and financial status through the mechanisms of fee exemptions and no-fee-school policies. This study attempts to explore and document the obstacles encountered by refugee and asylum seeker parents living in South Africa from accessing fee exemptions at a fee-paying school. Through a qualitative exploratory research study, the findings show that there are various barriers to accessing fee exemptions by refugee and asylum seeker parents whose children are enrolled at fee-paying schools. No-fee schools on the other hand are inaccessible to due amongst other issues the fear of xenophobia in the townships. As a result, some refugee/asylum seeker parents keep their children out of school. The findings show the negative impact of the fee exemption policy on fee-paying schools with large numbers of poor learners through the measures adopted to push parents into paying for school fees. ItemAccountability frameworks and their relationship to the performance of state-owned companies(2016) Murovhi, Hulisani DouglasABSTRACT The quality of a country’s economic institutions is widely accepted as a key determinant of cross-country differences in economic prosperity (Acemoglu, et al., 2005). Owing to their responsibility to develop infrastructure and manufacturing capacity, and to create employment, state-owned companies assume a critical role of advancing and stimulating the economic growth of a country (Khoza & Mohamed, 2005). In order to yield greater public economic value as agents of the national government, state-owned companies need to operate within an accountability framework that is adequate. Good governance is essential to ensure their positive contribution to the overall competiveness and efficiency of the economy. The realisation of an adequate accountability framework for state-owned companies is inhibited by a myriad of factors. This study attempts to explore the existing accountability framework applicable to state-owned companies and the impact thereof on their performance. Through a qualitative exploratory research study, the relationship between four (4) dimensions of an accountability framework (transparency, performance objectives, supervision and compliance, and performance) is examined. The findings indicate: the prevalence of political patronage/influence in the appointment of board members of state-owned companies; and that there are no formal processes for the appointment of board members. Despite being ultimately accountable for the performance of the organization, boards often do not have absolute authority to appoint and dismiss the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and other executives. This in turn diminishes the level of independence and authority of the board. Further, it was found that the oversight structures (in this case the line department and the relevant Parliamentary portfolio committee) were not sufficiently resourced and skilled to exercise an appropriate oversight function, nor do they have the power to impose punitive measures of any form for non-performance. Furthermore, conflict of interest situations exist within the supervisory structure matrix. ItemAccountant’s’ perceptions of(2011-06-15) Slabbert, Valerie-JoanDuring the past decade there have been a number of high-profile corporate failures, both locally and internationally. This has led to numerous legislative and regulatory changes, both locally and internationally. In South Africa, the Auditing Profession Act was released for comment in October 2004 and this led to the Auditing Profession Act, Act No.26 of 2005, which was signed into legislation on 16 January 2006; this took effect on 1 April 2006, as did the Corporate Laws Amendment Act of 2006. The draft Companies Bill of 2007 was released for comment in February 2007 and will replace the Companies Act of 1973. The purpose of this study was to research accountants’ perceptions regarding the effectiveness of legislative changes to the audit profession in South Africa with regard to the prevention of audit failure. Quantitative, non-experimental research was conducted to test the propositions developed from the literature review through a questionnaire that was sent to chartered accountants within South Africa. The majority of chartered accountants surveyed agreed that the reputation of the audit profession in South Africa had been affected adversely by high-profile business failures internationally and nationally, and that this necessitated the legislative changes to the audit profession in this country. There are certain aspects of these legislative changes that will be efficient in the prevention of audit failure and in ensuring greater independence of the external auditor; this was the opinion of the chartered accountants surveyed, and included the functioning of the independent audit committee, legal backing to accounting standards and increased liability for directors and parties involved in the preparation of financial statements. Legislative changes that were not perceived to be efficient included increased liability for the external auditor, practice reviews and the mandatory rotation of audit partners ItemAcculturation pressures on black managers in Information and Communication Technology organizations in South Africa(2016) Kwinana, Zukhanye N.ABSTRACT There is a rapid expansion of employment opportunities in the field of Information Communication Technology (ICT) due to the importance of technical fields in our modern society. The ICT industry, which is characterised by mostly white males, plays a key role in enabling the South African economy meet its targets. Within the industry there has been an increase in the number of Black, Coloured, and Asian young people and this is demonstrated by the fact that the number of black ICT graduates overtook the number of white graduates in 2002 and this trend has accelerated over time with more than twice as many black than white graduates. This results in a large number of black managers joining corporate South Africa, which is already characterised by a “white” culture value system, resulting in an increase in diversity within the work teams. The business problem addressed by this research is to understand the pressures that black ICT managers face to acculturate within their organisations, and whether these pressures have an impact on the black ICT manager’s integration into the team, as well as their commitment to the organisation. The study aims to show leaders in the ICT industry that diversity is not just about race and gender but also about psychological empowerment in the work context and this study explores an area where very few studies have been conducted in a South African context. This research report investigates both the experiences as well as the perceptions of male and female black managers in the ICT industry who are in middle and senior management roles in Gauteng, South Africa. A sample of 91 respondents was identified using the snowball sampling technique and were sent an online questionnaire consisting of questions relating to acculturation pressures within the organisation, practises of white managers that are inclusive or isolating to black managers as well as the impact of these behaviours on black managers and their integration into the team and commitment to the organisation. The collected data was analysed using the statistical software package SAS. The analysis showed that there is a polarisation of view of the organisation from a very equitable to a prejudiced and biased view of the organisation. Statistical analysis of the data using a T-Test showed that males and females do not hold a different view of the work environment; while a Spearman’s correlation revealed that the respondent’s tenure and management level also did not have an impact on their view of the work environment. The overall conclusion of the research was that there is evidence to contradict the proposition that black managers in the ICT industry in South Africa feel the pressure to acculturate to the white Western culture in their workplace; however there is evidence to support the two propositions that white managers exhibit practises and behaviours that are perceived as either inclusive or isolating by black managers; and secondly the practises and behaviours that are exhibited by white managers have an impact on black managers and their integration into the team and commitment to the organisation. With the structural unemployment that South Africa is currently facing, it is extremely important that the entire workforce feels that the company culture is accommodating of everyone so as to ensure that the organisations get the best from its employees. This research has assisted in bringing to light the issues that exist as well as assist in laying the foundation for further studies in this research. This will result in South Africa tapping into all of its human resources’ intelligence and competence to solve the problems faced by the country so that the diversity within the country provides a competitive edge to the country. ItemAchievement of organisational goals and motivation of middle level managers within the context of the two-factor theory(2014) Jansen, A; Samuel, MOThe ever dynamic nature of the world of work requires that organisations constantly review factors that energise managers (particularly middle level managers) towards achievement of set goals. This category of employees translates strategic decisions by top management into action through the operational employees. They (middle level managers) therefore serve as a link between top management and the lower level employees thus making their role to be of outmost importance to the survival and competitiveness of any organisation thus necessitating the need of our present study. The study adopted a survey research method using quantitative research design. A measuring instrument with a Cronbach alpha coefficient of above 0.70 was developed and used to collect primary data. Non-random sampling technique using purposive/convenience sampling procedure was employed in deriving a sample size of 250 middle-level managers who participated in the survey. Main hypotheses were formulated and tested using the Chi-Square test to determine the level of association between intrinsic and extrinsic motivational variables and achievement of organisational goals by middle level managers. Results show that both intrinsic and extrinsic motivational variables impacted significantly on achievement of organisational goals by this category of managers. Based on this finding, we therefore recommend that organisations should combine both intrinsic and extrinsic motivational variables in the design of goal achievement strategy for middle level managers. ItemAchieving Equality for Women: The Limits of a Bill of Rights(Centre for Applied Legal Studies, 1992-06) Albertyn, Cathi ItemAcquirers' selection criteria when choosing a mergers and acquisitions advisor bank in South Africa.(2014-09-04) Albanie, Sylvester NeilABSTRACT The research had three main objectives: firstly to establish if acquirers in Mergers and Acquisition (M&A) deals find value in M&A advising banks, secondly to determine what selection criteria acquirers use when deciding which advisor to select, and thirdly to determine some sort of ordering of these factors of the selection criteria of acquirers. The data for this research was collected using a survey questionnaire. The questions were informed by a review of the recent literature on the topic of M&As. The data was subjected to various statistical analysis techniques including ranking, averaging and factor analysis. The main finding of the research was that 90 per cent of acquirers still see value in using M&A advising banks on deals and find them especially useful where acquirers do not have access to the specialised intellectual capital that M&A advising banks have. The other important finding is that costs remain a key factor in explaining the selection process, but that costs, whether high or low, are not indicative of the quality acquirers perceive to get from advisors. Acquirers are looking to M&A advisors to show commitment to deals and deliver on their promises. ItemACTIVITY-BASED COST MANAGEMENT IN THE BANKING SECTOR(2011-10-20) van der Walt, Petrus StefanusThe South African banking sector is characterised as being highly competitive and has adopted several management accounting techniques to assist in setting the direction for the sector. As a consequence, activity-based costing (ABC) is one of the techniques employed. The research evaluated the appropriateness of ABC in the banking sector. Champions and users of ABC in the four major banks of South Africa were interviewed together with implementation consultants. The research found that ABC has particular value in the application of internal transfer pricing. The internal focus of transfer pricing raise some concern on the external value added by ABC. Differing views exist on further application of ABC. As far as implementation goes, all banks have implemented ABC with varying degrees of success. One of the major considerations that surfaced is the level of ownership by the business and continuous maintenance of the ABC system. ItemAN ADAPTIVE FORECASTING MODEL(2011-04-01) Da Silva, Paulo FerreiraNewspapers are considered the fastest moving consumer goods in the country, with a shelf life of only a couple of hours. Since the publishers carry the responsibility for over or under stocking newsprint products in the various retail stores, they employ a number of ‘allocation’ staff who manually modify a simplified forecasting technique to ensure that the optimal number of newspapers are delivered to each retailer in Gauteng. As it is common for the cost of newspaper production to equal or sometimes exceed the newspaper retail price, the correct allocation of newspaper copies carries a financial benefit to the publishers. To achieve a more accurate copy allocation, this research employs the Holt-Winter forecasting methodology, coupled with an adaptive closed loop algorithm. The closed loop algorithm automatically adjusts the Holt- Winter forecast to ensure that the number of copies allocated to each of the retailers is optimised. This is done to maximise the newspaper sale volume while reducing the volume produced, thus minimising the number of unsold newspaper copies and the associated financial losses attributed to overproduction. The adaptive forecasts were produced on an aggregated and disaggregated level. The aggregated method was used to forecast on a macro level, prior to the allocation of the individual copies at each retailer. Whilst this method performed well in comparison to the existing heuristic forecasting method, the forecast accuracy actually lays in the correct allocation of the aggregated forecasted result. The disaggregated method was used to forecast the number newspapers to be supplied at a retailer level. The adaptive disaggregated forecasting method not only achieved a reduction in the volume of unsold newspaper copies, but also a reduction of sales volume. Therefore, neither the adaptive aggregated or disaggregated forecast models achieved the objective of maximising newspaper sales while simultaneously reducing the volume of unsold newspapers.