The effect of temperature and methanol-water mixture on pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) of anti-HIV analogoues from Bidens pilosa

dc.contributor.authorGbashi, S.
dc.contributor.authorNjobeh, P.
dc.contributor.authorSteenkamp, P.
dc.contributor.authorTutu, H.
dc.contributor.authorMadala, N.
dc.description.abstractBackground: Pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) technique has recently gain much attention for the extraction of biologically active compounds from plant tissues for analytical purposes, due to the limited use of organic solvents, its cost-effectiveness, ease-of-use and efficiency. An increase in temperature results in higher yields, however, issues with degradation of some metabolites (e.g. tartrate esters) when PHWE is conditioned at elevated temperatures has greatly limited its use. In this study, we considered possibilities of optimizing PHWE of some specific functional metabolites from Bidens pilosa using solvent compositions of 0, 20, 40 and 60 % methanol and a temperature profile of 50, 100 and 150 °C. Results: The extracts obtained were analyzed using UPLC-qTOF-MS/MS and the results showed that both temperature and solvent composition were critical for efficient recovery of target metabolites, i.e., dicaffeoylquinic acid (diCQA) and chicoric acid (CA), which are known to possess anti-HIV properties. It was also possible to extract different isomers (possibly cis-geometrical isomers) of these molecules. Significantly differential (p ≤ 0.05) recovery patterns corresponding to the extraction conditions were observed as recovery increased with increase in methanol composition as well as temperature. The major compounds recovered in descending order were 3,5-diCQA with relative peak intensity of 204.23 ± 3.16 extracted at 50 °C and 60 % methanol; chicoric acid (141.00 ± 3.55) at 50 °C and 60 % methanol; 4,5-diCQA (108.05 ± 4.76) at 150 °C and 0 % methanol; 3,4-diCQA (53.04 ± 13.49) at 150 °C and 0 % methanol; chicoric acid isomer (40.01 ± 1.14) at 150 °C and 20 % methanol; and cis-3,5-diCQA (12.07 ± 5.54) at 100 °C and 60 % methanol. Fitting the central composite design response surface model to our data generated models that fit the data well with R2 values ranging from 0.57 to 0.87. Accordingly, it was possible to observe on the response surface plots the effects of temperature and solvent composition on the recovery patterns of these metabolites as well as to establish the optimum extraction conditions. Furthermore, the pareto charts revealed that methanol composition had a stronger effect on extraction yield than temperature. Conclusion: Using methanol as a co-solvent resulted in significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) even at temperatures as low as 50 °C, thus undermining the limitation of thermal degradation at higher temperatures during PHWE.en_ZA
dc.identifier.citationGbashi, S. et al. 2016. The effect of temperature and methanol-water mixture on pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) of anti-HIV analogoues from Bidens pilosa. Chemistry Central Journal 10(1), article number 37.en_ZA
dc.journal.titleChemistry Central Journalen_ZA
dc.publisherBioMed Central Ltd.en_ZA
dc.rights© 2016 The Author(s). This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.en_ZA
dc.subjectBidens pilosaen_ZA
dc.subjectChicoric aciden_ZA
dc.subjectDicaffeoylquinic aciden_ZA
dc.subjectPressurized hot water extractionen_ZA
dc.subjectResponse surface modelingen_ZA
dc.titleThe effect of temperature and methanol-water mixture on pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) of anti-HIV analogoues from Bidens pilosaen_ZA
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