Insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in central Sudan

Abdalla, Hiba Mohammed Abu Bakr
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
Malaria is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in Sudan. The annual malaria cases and deaths are estimated at 7.5 million and 35, 000 respectively. One of the possible factors that have led to this situation is the development of insecticide resistance in the main malaria vector in Sudan, Anopheles arabiensis. This study therefore, was initiated to identify the malaria vectors in Gezira and Sennar states of central Sudan, determine their susceptibility levels to the different classes of insecticides used for malaria vector control, identify mechanisms of resistance, and determine the sporozoite infection rate and the blood meal sources in these populations. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for species identification revealed that An. arabiensis was the only member of the An. gambiae complex present in the study area. The blood meal analysis using ELISA showed high anthropophily with 89.2% feeding on humans. The overall sporozoite infection rate was 2.3 %. WHO susceptibility tests showed complete susceptibility of An. arabiensis to bendiocarb (100% mortality) and multiple resistance to permethrin (54-78%), DDT (55-66%) and malathion (76-78%). The kdr mutation analysis revealed the presence of the West African kdr allele with the majority of specimens being heterozygous (RS). The kdr in DDT/permethrin susceptible specimens were: 15% homozygous for the kdr mutation (RR), 64.2% heterozygous (RS) and 20.8% homozygous for the susceptible allele (SS). Amongst the DDT/permethrin resistant specimens, 13% were SS, 48.7% RS and 38.3% RR. The apparent lack of correlation between kdr and resistant phenotype strongly suggests that other resistance mechanisms are playing a role.
insecticide resistance, Anopheles arabiensis, kdr, Sudan