Music as an intervention to reduce preoperative anxiety in gynaecological patients

Nana Yaa Fenima, Fening
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Background: Preoperative anxiety is a well-established phenomenon. Pharmacological methods have traditionally been used to alleviate this anxiety. Music had been identified as an alternative therapy to attenuate anxiety and improve postoperative outcomes. Aim: To describe the effect of a music intervention on preoperative anxiety levels in patients going for elective gynaecological procedures at the Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital. Setting: A prospective, contextual, quasi-experimental study, conducted at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital, a 1200 bed central hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa. Methods: Patients undergoing gynaecological procedures were recruited preoperatively by convenience sampling from gynaecology elective lists and allocated to music intervention and control groups using simple random sampling. Patients in the music intervention group listened to 20 minutes of precompiled music. Patients in the control group received 20 minutes of quiet time. Demographic data and physiological parameters were recorded and anxiety levels were assessed using the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: There was a significant difference in anxiety levels in the music intervention group before and after the intervention (p-value > 0.0001) but not in the control group. There were no significant differences in the physiological parameters. Those who received the music intervention enjoyed the experience. Conclusion: Music reduced preoperative anxiety in patients going for elective gynaecologic procedures. Music interventions are a cheap, easy way of reducing preoperative anxiety.
A research report submitted to the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Medicine in the branch of Anaesthesiology,2019