The morphogenesis of bone in replicas of porous hydroxyapatite obtained from conversion of calcium carbonate exoskeletons of coral

Ripamonti, Ugo
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The morphogenesis of bone in a porous hydroxyapatite substratum was studied after intramuscular implantation in adult primates. Replicas of porous hydroxyapatite that had been obtained after hydrothermal conversion of the calcium carbonate exoskeleton of coral (genus Goniopora) were implanted intramuscularly in twenty-four adult male baboons (Papio ursinus). Serial sections from specimens that had been harvested at three, six, and nine months showed that initially the formation of fibrous connective tissue was characterized by a prominent vascular component and by condensations of collagen fibers assembled at the interface of the hydroxyapatite. The morphogenesis of bone was intimately associated with the differentiation of the connective-tissue condensations. Bone formed without an intervening endochondral phase. Although the amount of bone varied considerably, in several specimens extensive bone developed, filling large portions of the porous spaces and culminating in total penetration by bone within the implants. The mean volume fraction composition of the specimens was 20.8 +/- 1.0 per cent (mean and standard error) for bone, 17.3 +/- 1.7 per cent for connective-tissue condensation, 31.9 +/- 1.0 per cent for fibrovascular tissue, 6.4 +/- 0.6 per cent for bone marrow, and 34.6 +/- 0.5 per cent for the hydroxyapatite framework. The amount of bone and marrow increased at each time-period, and the hydroxyapatite framework was significantly reduced between six and nine months. This indicated a moderate biodegradation over time, which was possibly a result of incomplete conversion of carbonate to hydroxyapatite. Linear regression analysis showed a negative correlation between the hydroxyapatite framework and the magnitude of bone formation within the porosities of the hydroxyapatite (p = 0.0001). Biochemical coating of the hydroxyapatite substratum with an allogeneic fibrin-fibronectin protein concentrate prepared from baboon plasma did not significantly increase the amount of bone formation within the porous spaces. The hydroxyapatite substratum may have functioned as a solid-phase domain for anchorage of bone morphogenetic proteins.
Hydroxyapatites, Osteogenesis, Papio ursinus
Ripamonti, U. The morphogenesis of bone in replicas of porous hydroxyapatite obtained from conversion of calcium carbonate exoskeletons of coral. Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume; 73(5):692-703