Morphological evaluation of the heart, kidney and liver following simvastatin treatment of a mouse model of adolescent alcoholism

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Individuals that begin drinking during adolescence are more likely to become alcohol addicts, resulting in the development of alcohol-related diseases such as alcoholic cardiomyopathy, renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis and steatohepatitis. This study investigated the protective capabilities of simvastatin against alcohol-induced damage on the heart, kidney, and liver of adolescent mice administered chronic alcohol. Fifty four–week old C57BL/6J mice (F = 5; M = 5) were assigned to each experimental group: (i) NT; no treatment; (ii) ALC; 2.5 g/Kg/day of 20% alcohol (iii) SIM; 5 mg/Kg/day (iv) ALC+SIM5; 5 mg/Kg/day of simvastatin followed by 2.5 g/Kg/day of 20% alcohol (v) ALC+SIM15; 15 mg/Kg/day of simvastatin followed by 2.5 g/Kg/day of 20% alcohol. Lower dosage of simvastatin was more effective against alcohol-induced myocardial hypertrophy in females while a higher dosage of simvastatin was more effective in males. Both simvastatin concentrations significantly reduced alcohol-induced myocardial fibrosis in the females but only the low simvastatin dosage was effective in the males. ALC+SIM5 improved inflammation only in the females. Alcohol increased the area of the renal corpuscles and glomeruli, the collagen and TNF-α distributions. 5 mg simvastatin was more effective against renal hypertrophy in both males and females. Both doses of SIM were effective against renal inflammation. Both concentrations of simvastatin were not beneficial in stimulating hepatocyte regeneration except for 15 mg simvastatin in males. Only a higher dose of simvastatin prevented alcohol effect on hepatic collagen distribution. Both concentrations of simvastatin following a chronic alcohol were not beneficial against alcohol-induced inflammation in the liver.
A research report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Science in Medicine to the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, School of Anatomical Sciences, Johannesburg, 2023
Alcohol addict, Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis, Steatohepatiti, Adolescence drinking