The ligand-binding function of the porcine class Pi glutathione S-transferase

Bico, Paula C G
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Glutathione S-transferases are multifunctional intracellular proteins. They catalyse the conjugation of glutathione to endogenous'or foreign electrophiles, and also bind non-substrate ligands. Class Pi glutathione S-transferase (pGSTPl~l) was purified from porcine lung to a specific. activity of 6.63p.ffiol/min/mg. The homodimeric protein has a molecular weight of about 4~.7kD and an isoelectric point of 8.6. Anionic ligand-binding properties of this isoenzyme were investigated. Steady-state fluorescence methods were used to determine ~ values for 8-anilino··l~naphtha1enesulphonic acid (K, == 17.1p.M and 11.1J.tM using fluorescence enhancement techniques and quenching techniques respectively), bromosulphophtbalein (Kcl=1.1p.M at pH 6.5 and 2.4/jM at pH 7.5) and glutathione {~=1201I.M). The affinity of bromosulphophthalein for the enzyme, in the presence of 10mM glutathione was slightly enhanced (~=O.7.uM at pH 6.5). The energy transfer betwecz the protein's tryptophan residues and 8-anUino-l-naphthalene sulphonic acid was observed and found to be about 56% efficient. The impact of ligand binding on both protein structure and catalytic activity were assessed. Kinetic studies show that the active site of the enzyme is not the primary binding site for the non-substrate ligands, but that the binding of bromosulphophthalein and to a lesser extent 8~ani1ino-l-!.~phtha1ene sulphonic acid, does affect the active site of the enzyme, especially aner saturating concentrations of the ligand. This may be the result of a small ligand-induced conformational change. Fluorescence studies also indicate that the primary site for anionic ligand binding is not in close proximity to either Trp28 or Trp38 in domain I, Competition studies indicated that the two anionic ligands bind the Same site, < Prorein fluorescence, chemical modification « and size-exclusion HPLC data indicate that ligand binding does 110t induce gross conformational changes in the protein.
A dissertation submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science at the University of the Witwatersrand. Johannesburg February 1994