Translation and code-switching: a sociolinguistics media production of Isolezwe

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This study investigated the use of direct translation, especially the direct borrowing procedure and code-switching in African media texts, particularly in the Isolezwe newspapers. The researcher noted that these two phenomena are frequently used and therefore considered that it was worth investigating their effects on the isiZulu language and isiNtu cultural cognition of the readers. Relevant literature relating to the current study was reviewed. The study was guided by two major theories: political economy of the media and cultural studies. The political economy of the media was specifically used as lenses to reveal how politics and other factors impedes the media industry from developing endoglossic languages. Cultural studies of the media were also applied as a supplementary theory of political economy in the study. Quantitative and qualitative research methodologies [mixed methodology design] were adopted as the study followed the explanatory sequential design strategy. Ten news articles and advertisements were purposefully sampled from ten Isolezwe newspapers to collect the data. Data collection was done through document review by reading the written texts from the purposefully sampled articles and advertisements. Because the study adopted the explanatory sequential design strategy, quantitative data analysis was firstly conducted followed by critical discourse analysis (CDA). The major findings of the study indicated that direct translation, particularly the direct borrowing of exoglossic lexes and code-switching phenomena were frequently used in all the articles and advertisements that were analysed. Direct borrowing procedure was the most used translation phenomenon in the news articles. On the other hand, code-switching was the least featured phenomenon in the advertisements. The overall findings of quantitative data analysis in the first section of analysis revealed that direct borrowing procedure use in news articles is 78% and 22% of code-switching phenomenon in the advertisements. Secondly, the findings revealed that the use of these two phenomena has effects on the isiZulu language and isiNtu cultural cognition of the readers. Lastly, the study discovered that these two phenomena needed to be used when it is essential to do so; that is, they need to be used when there are no other isiZulu lexical items that can be used: bridging the lexical gap and the incorporation of new technological concepts for the development and the preservation of the isiZulu language in the media, specifically the print media (Isolezwe newspaper). In considering the findings of the study, recommendations were also provided.
A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in African Languages and Linguistics to the Faculty of Humanities, School of Literature, Language and Media, University of the Witwatersrand, 2023
African media text, Code-switching, Critical discourse analysis (CDA)