The atherogenic effects of type 2 diabetes mellitus on the abdominal aorta of the zucker diabetic sprague dawley rat

Nkosi, Sandisiwe Lindiwe Ntombentsha
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The current study has focused on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and its atherogenic effects on the abdominal aorta in the Zucker Diabetic Sprague Dawley (ZDSD) rats (experimental group) in comparison to normal Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (control group). T2DM, one of the leading chronic diseases world-wide, greatly affects the population and the economy. Secondary morbidities, such as atherosclerosis, are common in advanced stages of T2DM, and increase the risk for complications such as embolism, aneurysms and stroke. Atherosclerosis is implicated in the majority of deaths among diabetic patients and is recognised as a major component in the pathogenesis of T2DM. Inflammation has been found to play a key role in atherosclerotic plaque formation. It is also pointed out that collagens, especially type 8, are dominant in vascular calcification and tissue remodelling, as a result of atherosclerosis, and as yet have received little attention. Previous investigations into T2DM have mainly focused on radiological techniques and very few studies have employed histological and immunohistochemical (IHC) techniques for investigating atherosclerosis. This study employed Haematoxylin & Eosin (H&E) and Weigert’s stains to illuminate and document arterial wall changes in diabetic animals and their controls, noting both the qualitative and quantitative changes in the cell layers. With the use of IHC, the presence of inflammation and arterial injury was also illuminated through labelling for Cluster of differentiation 40 (CD40) and Collagen type 8 alpha 2 (Col8A2) antibodies respectively. An observational case-control approach was employed. When observed, the experimental group was found to have significant arterial wall changes, together with significant presence of both CD40 and Col8A2, while the contrary was true for their non-diabetic counterparts
A dissertation submitted to the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of MSc (MED) in Anatomical Sciences. Johannesburg 2019