The effects of dentine contamination on the shear bond strength of a self-etching adhesive and a nanocomposite
Purpose: Resin restorative materials have improved over the years. A major obstacle to the acquisition of acceptable bond strength of bonding agents is the presence of contaminated dentine cavity preparations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of oral contaminants such as blood, saliva and a disinfectant contamination on the shear bond strength of a nanocomposite on a self-etching adhesive system. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six caries free premolar teeth were extracted and placed in a disinfectant solution containing 0.5 % Chloramine T solution, and then randomly distributed into four groups. Each tooth was then placed into a stainless steel ring supported by clear self-curing acrylic. They were thereafter immersed into a saline solution of 37 ̊C - 37.5 ̊C in an incubator for 24 hours. The enamel surfaces of the premolars were then ground with a Pro-trim 1725 Hertz grinder using 600 grit silicon carbide fine grinding paper to expose the dentine surface of each tooth. The sample was then re-immersed in the saline solution and incubated at 37°C - 37.5°C. The teeth were then arranged into the four groups: Group 1 (control group); Group 2 (human blood contamination at 5 seconds); Group 3 (human saliva contamination at 5 seconds) and Group 4 (chlorine dioxide contamination at 5 seconds). A self-etching adhesive bonding system (Scotchbond universal™) and Filtek supreme XTE composite was applied to the exposed dentine surface. Samples were randomised and then sheared using an Instron testing machine to determine their bond strengths. The fractured components of each sample were measured, compared and further examined under a stereo microscope to determine the modes of failure. The data were analysed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the level of significance was set at a p-value of less than 0.05. Results: A significant difference was found in the shear bond strength between the control (group 1) and the blood contaminated group (group 2) (p-value of 0.00064). The chlorine dioxide group (group 4) that had no effect on shear bond strength to dentine (p-value of 0.55). Adhesive failures (between bonding agent and dentine) were predominant in group 2 and to a lesser extent in group 3. Most group 4 samples had cohesive fractures (within the dentine). Conclusion: The bond strength to dentine using a self-etching adhesive was reduced when contaminated with blood. Group 2 samples (blood) caused significantly greater bonding failure as compared to all the other groups. Chlorine dioxide solution is a powerful disinfectant and does not affect the bonding to dentine. The null hypothesis statement, which stated that there was no difference in the shear strength between any of the conditions, was thus rejected. Further studies on the application of chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant on cavity preparations need to be considered given the surprising positive results of chlorine dioxide group.
This research report submitted to the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Dentistry. School of Oral Health Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa Johannesburg, 2017
Oral Contaminants, Shear Bond Strength