Effect of natural colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae on the systemic immune responses to common pneumococcal protein antigens with immune protective potential
Background: Due to the high cost and limited serotype coverage of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV), surface proteins of Streptococcus pneumoniae are being investigated for their role as potential vaccine candidates. There are limited data on natural antibody kinetics against pneumococcal surface proteins arising through exposure to pneumococcal nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization in African populations. Objectives: To characterize the natural antibody kinetics and sero-prevalence to 15 pneumococcal proteins with respect to age, PCV vaccination and HIV status as well as to explore the association between antibody titers and pneumococcal nasopharyngeal colonization in infants, older children and adults. Methods: We established a 15-plex Luminex assay for the following proteins: PspA, PspC, LytB, IgA1-proteinase, SP 0082, PdB, PcsB, PsaA, SP 0609, SP 0749, PpmA, SlrA, StkP, SP 2027 and SP 2194, and also validated the Luminex assay comparing it to a standard ELISA method for PspA, PspC, PsaA and PdB. We used the Luminex method to characterize the prevalence and dynamics of serum IgG antibodies against the pneumococcal proteins. The study involved 2 166 human subjects which included: i. A longitudinal cohort of children less than 2 years of age, who were vaccinated with the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) and were either a) HIV-exposed infected, b) HIV-exposed uninfected or c) HIV-unexposed uninfected. ii. A longitudinal cohort of PCV-7 unvaccinated children less than 2 years of age who were either: a) HIV-unexposed uninfected or b) HIV-exposed uninfected. The PCV-7 vaccinated and unvaccinated children were followed up from approximately 4 to 24 months of age. In addition, samples were also analyzed from HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected children Project ID: Pneumococcal protein antigens Student: Zanele Ditse Date: 04 October 2011 - 5 - aged between 4 to 7 years who received either a primary series of PCV-9 or placebo during infancy. Lastly, we analyzed cross-sectional samples from HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected women. Results: The multiplex Luminex assay correlated well with singleplex ELISAs for all four analyzed proteins with correlation coefficients of 0.86, 0.90, 0.87 and 0.96 for PspA, PspC, PdB and PsaA respectively. Antibody titers to PspC, PdB, LytB, SP 0082, PcsB and StkP showed increases in titer with respect to increasing age. Prevailing nasopharyngeal pneumococcal colonization in young children was associated with higher antibody titers to PspA, PspC, PdB, SP 0082, LytB, IgA1-proteinase, PpmA, PcsB and StkP. Conversely higher antibody titers to PspC, PdB, LytB, SP 0082, PcsB and StkP were associated with lower prevalence of pneumococcal colonization in older children and adults. In children under two years of age, PCV vaccination was associated with lower antibody titers to PspA, PspC, LytB, PdB, IgA1-proteinase, PcsB and StkP as well as higher antibody titers against SP 0082 and PpmA at multiple time-points. In PCV-vaccinated children under two years of age, those who were HIV-unexposed , -uninfected had higher antibody titers to PspA, PspC, SP 0082, IgA1-proteinase, PpmA and StkP compared to HIV-exposed, uninfected children. Conclusion: There was an age-related increase in antibody titers to PspA, PspC, PdB, SP 0082, LytB, IgA1-proteinase, PpmA, PcsB, and StkP in children under two years of age. PCV immunization was, however, associated with lower antibody titers to PspA, PspC, LytB, PdB, IgA1-proteinase, PcsB and StkP in young children which was not attributed to differences in the prevalence of nasopharyngeal colonization. Furthermore, HIV-infection status in young children was associated with higher antibody responses to PspA, PspC, PdB, SP 0082, LytB, IgA1-proteinase, PpmA, PcsB and StkP proteins in HIV-unexposed uninfected children compared to HIV-exposed uninfected and HIV-exposed infected children. Higher antibody concentrations to Project ID: Pneumococcal protein antigens Student: Zanele Ditse Date: 04 October 2011 - 6 - PspC, PdB, LytB, SP 0082, PcsB and StkP was negatively associated with nasopharyngeal pneumococcal colonization in older children and adults; indicating a protective role against colonization and a potential role as vaccine candidates.
MSc., Faculty of Science, University of the Witwatersrand, 2011
Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neonatal infections, Newborn infants