outcomes of neonates with perinatal asphyxia at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital (CMJAH) from 2007-2011

Padayachee, Natasha
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Background: Perinatal asphyxia is a significant cause of death and disability. Aim: To determine the outcomes (survival to discharge and morbidity post discharge) of neonates with perinatal asphyxia at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital (CMJAH). Methods: This was a descriptive retrospective study. Patient information was obtained from the computerised neonatal database of neonates admitted to CMJAH within 24 hours of birth between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2011 with a birth weight of >1800 grams and a 5 minute Apgar score <6. Results: 450 babies were included in the study; 185 females (41.1%). Mean birth weight was 3034.80 grams (SD 484.936) and mean gestational age was 39.11 weeks (SD 2.2). Most babies were inborn 391/450 (86.9%) and most were delivered by normal vaginal delivery 270/450 (60%). The overall survival was 390/450 (86.6%). There were 42 babies admitted to ICU. The ICU survival was 37/42 (88.1%). Significant predictors of survival were place of birth (p value 0.006), mode of delivery (p value 0.007) and bag mask ventilation at birth (p value 0.040). The duration of stay (p value 0.000) was significantly longer in survivors (6.49 days SD 6.6). The remaining factors were not significantly different between the two groups. The rate of perinatal asphyxia (Apgar score <6) was 4.68 per 1000 live births; while 3.61 per 1000 live births had evidence of hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE). Of the 390 babies discharged from CMJAH, 113 had follow up records (28.97%) to a mean corrected age of 5.88 months (SD 5.03). The majority (90/113 – 79.64%) had normal development. Conclusion: i) The high overall survival and survival after ICU admission provides a benchmark for further care. ii) Obtaining adequate data for long term follow up was not possible with the existing resources and surrogate early markers of outcome and / or more resources to ensure accurate follow-up are needed and iii) the high incidence of HIE suggest that a therapeutic hypothermia service including long-term follow-up component would be beneficial.
A Research Report submitted to the Faculty of Science, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Medicine in Paediatrics. 8 May 2014