A descriptive case review of cardiac hydatid disease
Background Cardiac specific hydatid disease is a rare occurrence with limited previous descriptions of in a Southern African context. It poses significant health problems in undeveloped and developing countries, and as it is thought to be endemic in this area, it is likely to be underdiagnosed and under-reported, particularly with the lack of suitably available imaging modalities in rural areas. Objectives The study purpose was to identify cases of cardiac hydatid disease, and describe these cases comprehensively. Methods All adult patients diagnosed with cardiac hydatid disease from 01 January 1999 to 31 December 2015, at the Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, at Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital, and an undisclosed private hospital, in Johannesburg, South Africa were considered. Cases were obtained from the cardiology unit discharge summaries with the records and pertinent data entered onto a data collection sheet. Results Four cases of cardiac hydatid disease were discovered, and are described individually. Three cases had exclusive cardiac involvement. There were diverse presentations and locations of their cysts, with all patients being both medically and surgically treated. Conclusion Transthoracic echocardiography is the fundamental mode of investigation in diagnosing cardiac hydatid disease, particularly due to its varied presentations. Further research is encouraged to support shorter treatment durations where surgery is performed.
A research report submitted to the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Witwatersrand, in partial fulfillment for the requirements of the degree of Master of Medicine, Johannesburg 2019