Antiplatelet Therapy Combined with Anastrozole Induces Features of Partial EMT in Breast Cancer Cells and Fails to Mitigate Breast-Cancer Induced Hypercoagulation

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Date
2021-04-16
Authors
Xulu, Kutlwano R.
Augustine, Tanya N.
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
Publisher
MDPI
Abstract
Thromboembolic complications are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. Cancer patients often present with an increased risk for thrombosis including hypercoagulation, so the application of antiplatelet strategies to oncology warrants further investigation. This study investigated the effects of anastrozole and antiplatelet therapy (aspirin/clopidogrel cocktail or atopaxar) treatment on the tumour responses of luminal phenotype breast cancer cells and induced hypercoagulation. Ethical clearance was obtained (M150263). Blood was co-cultured with breast cancer cell lines (MCF7 and T47D) pre-treated with anastrozole and/or antiplatelet drugs for 24 h. Hypercoagulation was indicated by thrombin production and platelet activation (morphological and molecular). Gene expression associated with the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was assessed in breast cancer cells, and secreted cytokines associated with tumour progression were evaluated. Data were analysed with the PAST3 software. Our findings showed that antiplatelet therapies (aspirin/clopidogrel cocktail and atopaxar) combined with anastrozole failed to prevent hypercoagulation and induced evidence of a partial EMT. Differences in tumour responses that modulate tumour aggression were noted between breast cancer cell lines, and this may be an important consideration in the clinical management of subphenotypes of luminal phenotype breast cancer. Further investigation is needed before this treatment modality (combined hormone and antiplatelet therapy) can be considered for managing tumour associated-thromboembolic disorder.
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Keywords
Breast cancer , Hypercoagulation , Aspirin , Clopidogrel , Atopaxar , Anastrozole , Platelet activation , Thrombin activity , Tumour survival
Citation
Xulu K. R. and Augustine T. N. Antiplatelet Therapy Combined with Anastrozole Induces Features of Partial EMT in Breast Cancer Cells and Fails to Mitigate Breast-Cancer Induced Hypercoagulation. Vol. 22, International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021. DOI: 10.3390/ijms22084153