The prevalence of cutaneous lupus manifestations in patients diagnosed with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) attending the Chris Hani Baragwanath academic hospital rheumatology outpatient clinic
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Introduction Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disorder. The skin is affected in up to 85% of cases. Aims The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and spectrum of both specific and non-specific cutaneous findings in SLE patients attending Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital. Methods A retrospective record review of 298 patients meeting the 2012 Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) criteria for SLE. Cutaneous findings were divided into LE- specific disease (Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus) and LE-nonspecific findings. The Lupus Severity Index (LSI) was calculated according to the Bello et al. Results The mean (SD) age at presentation was 35 years (11.8) and the female: male ratio was 13:1. Eighty-three percent of patients had cutaneous findings and CLE affected 76.1% of patients. Discoid Lupus Erythematosus (DLE) was the commonest form of CLE followed by Acute Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus (ACLE). Patients with CLE had a significantly better Lupus Severity Index (LSI) (5.7 vs 6.1; p=0.001). Those patients with Chronic Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus (CCLE) had a better LSI than those with ACLE (6.07 vs 6.5; p=0.001). Conclusion The skin was the single most commonly affected organ system. DLE, both localised and generalised, was very common in patients with SLE, occurring more frequently than ACLE. Patients with CLE had a better LSI than those without.