On the Triggering Mechanisms of Upward Lightning

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dc.contributor.author Schumann, C.
dc.contributor.author Saba, M
dc.contributor.author Warner, T.
dc.contributor.author Ferro, M.
dc.contributor.author Helsdon Jr, J.H.
dc.contributor.author Thomas, R.
dc.contributor.author Orville, R.E.
dc.date.accessioned 2020-01-22T06:29:43Z
dc.date.available 2020-01-22T06:29:43Z
dc.date.issued 2019-12
dc.identifier.citation Schumann, C. et al. 2019. On the Triggering Mechanisms of Upward Lightning. Scientific Reports 9 (1), Article number 9576. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-46122-x en_ZA
dc.identifier.issn 2045-2322
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/10539/28750
dc.description The authors would like to acknowledge and thank Lie Bie (Benny), Amanda Paiva, Guilherme Aminger, Kleber Naccarato, Hugh Hunt, Alana Ballweber, Chip Redmond, John Hamilton and Ryan Lueck, for their assistance in obtaining some of these observations. The authors would like to thank Claude Leon Foundation and University of the Witwatersrand. The authors would also like to thank Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) for supporting the research through the projects 2012/15375-7 and 2013/05784-0. This research was made possible through National Science Foundation (NSF) grant AGS-1048103. Additional funding came from NSF grant ATM – 0813672, which provided funding for concurrent high-speed optical spectra observations during UPLIGHTS. Data for this study is available on request. Please contact the corresponding author for details. en_ZA
dc.description.abstract Upward lightning studies took place in Rapid City, South Dakota, USA and S. Paulo, Brazil during the summer thunderstorm seasons from 2011 to 2016. One of the main objectives of these campaigns was to evaluate and characterize the triggering of upward positive leaders from tall objects due to preceding nearby flash activity. 110 upward flashes were observed with a combination of high- and standard-speed video and digital still cameras, electric field meters, fast electric-field antenna systems, and for two seasons, a Lightning Mapping Array. These data were analyzed, along with correlated lightning location system data, to determine the triggering flash type responsible for the initiation of upward leaders from towers. In this paper, we describe the various processes during flash activity that can trigger upward leaders from tall objects in the USA and in Brazil. We conclude that the most effective triggering component is the propagation of the in-cloud negative leader during the continuing current that follows a positive return stroke. en_ZA
dc.language.iso en en_ZA
dc.publisher Nature Research en_ZA
dc.rights © The Author(s) 2019. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Cre-ative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not per-mitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. en_ZA
dc.subject Upward lightning en_ZA
dc.subject Lightning protection en_ZA
dc.subject Cloud charge en_ZA
dc.subject Flash activity en_ZA
dc.title On the Triggering Mechanisms of Upward Lightning en_ZA
dc.type Article en_ZA
dc.journal.volume 9 en_ZA
dc.journal.title Scientific Reports en_ZA
dc.description.librarian MvdH2020 en_ZA
dc.citation.doi 10.1038/S41598-019-46122-X en_ZA
dc.citation.epage 9
dc.citation.spage 1
dc.funder Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (Funding number: 2012/15375-7,2013/05784-0) National Science Foundation (Funding number: ATM – 0813672,AGS-1048103) en_ZA
dc.orcid.id 0000-0003-1095-0416 en_ZA
dc.journal.link https://www.nature.com/srep/ en_ZA
dc.journal.issue 1 en_ZA
dc.article.start-page 1 en_ZA
dc.article.end-page 9 en_ZA
dc.faculty Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment and Faculty of Science en_ZA


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