Hormonal contraceptives as a risk factor for invasive breast cancer in black women in Johannesburg, South Africa

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dc.contributor.author Rubanzana, Wilson
dc.date.accessioned 2008-10-10T11:21:34Z
dc.date.available 2008-10-10T11:21:34Z
dc.date.issued 2008-10-10T11:21:34Z
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10539/5740
dc.description.abstract Background: Black South African women are known to have a high usage rate of injectable contraceptives. Breast cancer is the second leading cancer after malignant cervical neoplasms in black South African women. There is evidence that sex hormones are associated with an increased risk of developing breast cancer. In the Western Cape, investigators suggested that injectable contraceptives, more specifically DMPA, may increase breast cancer risk. In another study conducted in the same province, a weak association between breast cancer and women taking combined oestrogen/progesterone oral contraceptives was found, though no risk associated with injectable progestogen contraceptives (DMPA) was confirmed. Study Objective: This study aimed to determine whether there is an association between hormonal contraceptive use and an increased risk of cancer of the breast. Methods: Data was obtained from an ongoing case control study set up by MRC/Wits/NHLS Cancer Epidemiology Research Group (CERG) in 1995 to investigate risk factors associated with cancer among the black population in Johannesburg. Data was processed using STATA, version8 and analysed using univariate, bivariate and multivariate unmatched logistic regression models. Results: There was evidence that an overall use of oral contraceptives increases the risk of breast cancer; cases (n= 221), controls :( n= 153), OR=2.01 (95% CI:1.45, 2.80), p<0.0001. There was evidence of an association between use of injectable contraception and the risk of breast cancer; cases (n=244), controls (n=202), OR=1.51(CI: 1.14, 2.01),p=0.004 Surprisingly, no other use characteristic of either hormonal contraceptive method was statistically significantly associated with the risk of breast cancer in our dataset. The combined use of both oral and injectable contraception was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, OR=1.68(1.21, 2.33), p =0.002. There was a strong effect modification (interaction) between oral contraceptive use and injectable progesterone associated with the risk of breast cancer, (p=0.008). Conclusion: After adjusting for all potential risk and confounding factors, as collected in the dataset, there was evidence of an association between combined oral contraceptive use and breast cancer. An association between cancer of the breast and overall use of injectable progesterone use was also established. There was evidence of association between the use of both hormonal contraceptive methods and an increased risk of breast cancer. However, whether these findings reflect the reality in terms of causal relationship or are the result of bias must be ascertained. en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.subject hormonal contraceptives en
dc.subject risk factors en
dc.subject invasive breast cancer en
dc.subject confounding factors en
dc.subject effect modification en
dc.title Hormonal contraceptives as a risk factor for invasive breast cancer in black women in Johannesburg, South Africa en
dc.type Thesis en


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