Catalytic properties of gold-zeolites and related materials

Show simple item record Magadu, Takalani 2008-03-11T07:10:02Z 2008-03-11T07:10:02Z 2008-03-11T07:10:02Z
dc.description.abstract Zeolite catalysts were prepared by carrying out an ion-exchange process of transition metals and impregnation to incipient-wetness method of metal catalyst using a chlorine free gold precursor, KAu(CN)2. The instability of Au/Y (3.74wt%Au) resulted in low CO oxidation activity (~ 18 % conversion at 450 0C), suggesting that the reduced gold metal atoms are bound to the zeolite by a weak interaction. This is subject to migration within the passages of the zeolite during use. The presence of proton stabilized most of Au clusters (electron deficient species) within the HY zeolite, resulting in small amounts of gold species migrating to the outer surface. Interestingly the CO oxidation activity of Au/HY is half that of Au/Y, which clearly indicate that the presence of metallic gold plays a significant role during CO oxidation. The loading of Au/M-Y (M = Ni2+, Fe3+, Co2+ or Cr3+) were varied from 1.67- 7.48wt%Au and from 1.76-5.45wt%M. Modification of this Y structure with transition metals has been found to be beneficial for both activity and stability of smaller gold clusters, by strengthening the interaction between gold and zeolite exchange sites and by large magnitude in maintaining the dispersion of gold. This suggests that the unreduced chromium ions function as a chemical anchors for reduced Au metal and that the reduced atoms of gold may form small clusters with the anchoring metal. TPR profile has confirmed that the introduction of 1.67wt%Au on Fe-Y (1.88wt%Fe) increased the stability of Fe ions as stabilizer metal. However, as the gold loading of Au/Fe-Y catalyst increases the TPR profile shows that the stability of Fe ions decreases and hence the activity of catalysts. An increase in transition metal content, above 1.88wt%Fe was found to lower the CO oxidation activity. A TPR profile has confirmed that as the reduction potential became more negative, the activity of supported Au increases following the sequence: Ni2+, 0.23 << Fe3+, -0.41 < Cr3+, -0.56. The estimated particle sizes of gold by X-ray diffraction were found to be ~ 12 nm for Ni2+, ~ 7 nm for Fe3+, and ~ 5 nm for Cr3+ stabilized metal. Samples of Au/HY (3.77wt%Au) have been prepared by an ion-exchange method using Au(III) ethylenediamine complex-ions, [Au(en)2]3+. Following a pretreatment in an O2 atmosphere, the catalyst showed the existence of an induction period before reaching a steady state activity; suggesting the need for activating gold prior to catalyzing CO oxidation reaction. As-prepared catalyst contained 85% of gold in the Au3+ valence state as confirmed by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The catalyst was treated with various reducing agents (such as NaBH4); to yield stable and active smaller gold clusters (< 2 nm) inside the HY cavities, as revealed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Uv- Vis Spectrophotometer. DRIFTS revealed that electron-deficient particles (Auó+- CO species) of gold clusters, inside the HY framework and in contact with protons are active species for CO oxidation. CO activity and formation of smaller gold clusters depends on the nature and molar ratio of reducing agents, and the source of gold. The induction period observed for unreduced Au catalyst is a slow step in the activation of gold active sites. Treatment of Au/Y (3.46wt%Au) with sodium borohydride enhanced the activation of gold active species and hence improves the catalytic activity. The NaBH4 treated Au/Y (3.73wt%Au) catalyst has shown, for the first time, activity of approximately 28% CO conversion. The catalyst showed almost the same activity and induction period as that of the untreated Au/HY (3.77wt%Au) catalyst, which leaves much to be investigated about the behaviour of Au on Y zeolite upon treatment with a proper reducing agent. The protons have been found to stabilize the smaller Au nanoparticles within the zeolite cavities. The modification of zeolite-Y was carried out by treatment with different alkali metal nitrates such as LiNO3, NaNO3 and KNO3 before introducing gold from different sources, (i.e. gold ethylenediamine complex ion, Au(en)2Cl3; chloroauric acid, HAuCl4; or potassium dicyano aurate, KAu(CN)2 complex). The CO oxidation activity of the catalysts was found to depend on the nature of the gold source and on the type of alkali metal nitrate used. The order of activity was as follows: HAuCl4 >> KAu(CN)2 > Au(en)2Cl3. It was found that the activity of catalysts prepared by deposition of Au from an aqueous solution of chloroauric acid on Na-modified zeolites-Y, increased as a result of an increase in the amount of Au deposited as confirmed X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF). The Kmodified zeolite-Y had a smaller amount of Au deposited (i.e. Au/KY, 0.454wt%Au; Au/NaY, 0.772wt%Au and Au/LiY, 0.212wt%Au) and hence the CO oxidation activity was lower than that of Na-modified zeolites-Y. Thus, the order of the catalytic activity is as follows: Na > K > Li. The XRD studies have revealed that metallic gold particles sizes do not depend on the nature of alkali metal nitrates used to modify the zeolite-Y surface and the zeolite-Y crystallinity has been maintained. Monometallic Au/NaY (0.772wt%Au, treated with NaNO3) was found to be active in ethylene hydrogenation with ~5% conversion. Treatment of catalysts with NaBH4 was found to lower the catalytic activity of the catalysts, contrary to activities observed on CO oxidation and these concluded that cationic gold are responsible for the observed activity. The activity was found to depend on the source of Au used, and the order is as follows; HAuCl4 >> KAu(CN)2 > Au(en)Cl3. Bimetallic catalysts of Au/M-Y (where Au represent gold from KAu(CN)2, and M = Ni2+, Fe3+, or Cr3+) were found to be more active compared to monometallic catalysts due to promotional effect of transition metal. The order of activity of the bimetallic system at 260 0C was as follows; Ni2+ >> Fe3+ > Cr3+, and at 150 0C, was Ni2+ >> Cr3+ > Fe3+, contradicting the order of activity observed on CO oxidation. Formation of carbonaceous deposits on the surface of the catalyst at temperature higher than 260 0C has been confirmed. Cu modified Au/TiO2 (anatase, 200m2/g) has been prepared by incipient-wetness method by either introducing the modifier, before or after Au loading. Such catalysts were found to give high and stable activity for the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction, when compared to unmodified Au/TiO2 catalysts. It has been suggested that an increase in activity on modified Au/TiO2, is mainly due to the existence of a synergetic interaction between Cu and Au, since the activity of both Cu/TiO2 and Au/TiO2 is lower than that of bimetallic system. The presence of nitrates on Cuc-Au/TiO2 (c Cu precursor is Cu(NO3)2*2.5H2O) has been found to be detrimental to the activity of Au on TiO2; due to the poisoning of Au active sites and enhancement of Au agglomeration by NO2 - formed during the reaction. An increase in Cu loading lowers the activity of Au. A XANES spectrum has confirmed that gold exists as either Au+/Au0 during WGS reaction and Cu exists as copper ions (Cu+/Cu2+) before and during WGS reaction. Formation of bimetallic particles was not detected by EXAFS data analysis. The observed effects are interpreted as a mutual influence of gold and copper ions and reduced species of gold and copper due to their competing for ion exchange sites. Cu has no promotional effect on low temperature CO oxidation and on preferential CO oxidation in excess of hydrogen. en
dc.format.extent 2786665 bytes
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso en en
dc.subject gold en
dc.subject catalysis en
dc.subject zeolites en
dc.title Catalytic properties of gold-zeolites and related materials en
dc.type Thesis en

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