Reappraisal of the envenoming capacity of Euchambersia mirabilis (Therapsida, Therocephalia) using μcT-scanning techniques.

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dc.contributor.author Benoit, J.
dc.contributor.author Norton, L.A.
dc.contributor.author Manger, P.R.
dc.contributor.author Rubidge, B.S.
dc.date.accessioned 2017-11-02T13:18:21Z
dc.date.available 2017-11-02T13:18:21Z
dc.date.issued 2017-02
dc.identifier.citation Benoit J, et al. 2017. Reappraisal of the envenoming capacity of Euchambersia mirabilis (Therapsida, Therocephalia) using μcT-scanning techniques. PLOS ONE 12(2), Article number e0172047. en_ZA
dc.identifier.issn 1932-6203 (Online)
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10539/23363
dc.description.abstract Euchambersia mirabilis is an iconic species of Permo-Triassic therapsid because of its unusually large external maxillary fossa linked through a sulcus to a ridged canine. This anatomy led to the commonly accepted conclusion that the large fossa accommodated a venom gland. However, this hypothesis remains untested so far. Here, we conducted a μCT scan assisted reappraisal of the envenoming capacity of Euchambersia, with a special focus on the anatomy of the maxillary fossa and canines. This study shows that the fossa, presumably for the venom-producing gland, is directly linked to the maxillary canal, which carries the trigeminal nerve (responsible for the sensitivity of the face). The peculiar anatomy of the maxillary canal suggests important reorganisation in the somatosensory system and that a ganglion could possibly have been present in the maxillary fossa instead of a venom gland. Nevertheless, the venom gland hypothesis is still preferred since we describe, for the first time, the complete crown morphology of the incisiform teeth of Euchambersia, which strongly suggests that the complete dentition was ridged. Therefore Euchambersia manifests evidence of all characteristics of venomous animals: a venom gland (in the maxillary fossa), a mechanism to deliver the venom (the maxillary canal and/or the sulcus located ventrally to the fossa); and an apparatus with which to inflict a wound for venom delivery (the ridged dentition). en_ZA
dc.language.iso en en_ZA
dc.publisher Public Library of Science en_ZA
dc.rights © 2017 Benoit, J. et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. en_ZA
dc.subject Animal structures en_ZA
dc.subject Article en_ZA
dc.subject Dentition en_ZA
dc.subject Dog breed en_ZA
dc.subject Envenomation en_ZA
dc.subject Euchambersia mirabilis en_ZA
dc.subject Extinct species en_ZA
dc.subject Face en_ZA
dc.subject Ganglion en_ZA
dc.subject Incisor en_ZA
dc.subject Maxilla en_ZA
dc.subject Maxillary canal en_ZA
dc.subject Nonhuman en_ZA
dc.subject Poisonous animal en_ZA
dc.subject Somatosensory system en_ZA
dc.subject Trigeminal nerve en_ZA
dc.subject Venom gland en_ZA
dc.subject X-ray computed tomography en_ZA
dc.title Reappraisal of the envenoming capacity of Euchambersia mirabilis (Therapsida, Therocephalia) using μcT-scanning techniques. en_ZA
dc.type Article en_ZA
dc.journal.volume 12 en_ZA
dc.journal.title PLOS ONE en_ZA
dc.description.librarian EM2017 en_ZA
dc.citation.doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0172047 en_ZA
dc.citation.issue 2 en_ZA
dc.funder PAST and its Scatterlings projects; the NRF African Origins Platform; and the DST-NRF Centre of Excellence in Palaeosciences (CoE in Palaeosciences). en_ZA


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