Earliest hominin cancer: 1.7-million-year- old osteosarcoma from Swartkrans Cave, South Africa

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dc.contributor.author Odes, E.J.
dc.contributor.author Randolph-Quinney, P.S.
dc.contributor.author Steyn, M.
dc.contributor.author Thockmorton, Z.
dc.contributor.author Smilg, J.S.
dc.contributor.author Zipfel, B.
dc.contributor.author Augustine, T.N.
dc.contributor.author de Beer, F.
dc.contributor.author Hoffman, J.W.
dc.contributor.author Franklin, R.D.
dc.contributor.author Berger, L.R.
dc.date.accessioned 2017-02-09T14:12:51Z
dc.date.available 2017-02-09T14:12:51Z
dc.date.issued 2016-07
dc.identifier.citation Odes, E.J. et al. 2016. Earliest hominin cancer: 1.7-million-year- old osteosarcoma from Swartkrans Cave, South Africa. South African Journal of Science 112 (7/8): Article number 2015-0471 en_ZA
dc.identifier.issn 0038-2353 (Print)
dc.identifier.issn 1996-7489 (Online)
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10539/21991
dc.description.abstract The reported incidence of neoplasia in the extinct human lineage is rare, with only a few confirmed cases of Middle or Later Pleistocene dates reported. It has generally been assumed that premodern incidence of neoplastic disease of any kind is rare and limited to benign conditions, but new fossil evidence suggests otherwise. We here present the earliest identifiable case of malignant neoplastic disease from an early human ancestor dated to 1.8–1.6 million years old. The diagnosis has been made possible only by advances in 3D imaging methods as diagnostic aids. We present a case report based on re-analysis of a hominin metatarsal specimen (SK 7923) from the cave site of Swartkrans in the Cradle of Humankind, South Africa. The expression of malignant osteosarcoma in the Swartkrans specimen indicates that whilst the upsurge in malignancy incidence is correlated with modern lifestyles, there is no reason to suspect that primary bone tumours would have been any less frequent in ancient specimens. Such tumours are not related to lifestyle and often occur in younger individuals. As such, malignancy has a considerable antiquity in the fossil record, as evidenced by this specimen. en_ZA
dc.language.iso en en_ZA
dc.publisher Academy of Science of South Africa (ASSAf) en_ZA
dc.rights © 2016. The Author(s). Published under a Creative Commons Attribution Licence. en_ZA
dc.subject palaeopathology en_ZA
dc.subject oncology en_ZA
dc.subject metatarsal en_ZA
dc.subject malignant neoplasia en_ZA
dc.subject micro-computed tomography en_ZA
dc.subject OSTEOBLASTOMA en_ZA
dc.subject TUMORS en_ZA
dc.subject STATISTICS en_ZA
dc.subject ANTIQUITY en_ZA
dc.subject SARCOMA en_ZA
dc.subject BONE en_ZA
dc.subject SITE en_ZA
dc.title Earliest hominin cancer: 1.7-million-year- old osteosarcoma from Swartkrans Cave, South Africa en_ZA
dc.type Article en_ZA
dc.journal.volume 112 en_ZA
dc.journal.title South African Journal of Science en_ZA
dc.description.librarian NCS2016 en_ZA
dc.citation.doi 10.17159/sajs.2016/20150471 en_ZA
dc.citation.epage 5 en_ZA
dc.citation.issue 7/8 en_ZA
dc.citation.spage 1 en_ZA


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