Thermal excitation of gadolinium-based contrast agents using spin resonance.

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dc.contributor.author Dinger, S.C.
dc.contributor.author Fridjhon, P.
dc.contributor.author Rubin, D.M.
dc.date.accessioned 2016-10-31T14:27:02Z
dc.date.available 2016-10-31T14:27:02Z
dc.date.issued 2016-06
dc.identifier.citation Dinger, S.C., Fridjhon, P. and Rubin, D.M. 2016. Thermal excitation of gadolinium-based contrast agents using spin resonance. PloS ONE 11(6): e0158194 en_ZA
dc.identifier.issn 1932-6203
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10539/21320
dc.description.abstract Theoretical and experimental investigations into the thermal excitation of liquid paramagnetic contrast agents using the spin resonance relaxation mechanism are presented. The electronic spin-lattice relaxation time ole of gadolinium-based contrast agents, which is estimated at 0.1 ns, is ten orders of magnitude faster than the relaxation time of protons in water. The shorter relaxation time is found to significantly increase the rate of thermal energy deposition. To the authors knowledge this is the first study of gadolinium based contrast agents in a liquid state used as thermal agents. Analysis shows that when ô1e and other experimental parameters are optimally selected, a maximum theoretical heating rate of 29.4 °C.s.1 could be achieved which would suffice for clinical thermal ablation of neoplasms. The experimental results show a statistically significant thermal response for two out of the four contrast agents tested. The results are compared to the simulated estimates via analysis of a detailed model of the system. While these experimentally determined temperature rises are small and thus of no clinical utility, their presence supports the theoretical analysis and strongly suggests that the chemical structure of the selected compounds plays an important role in this mechanism of heat deposition. There exists an opportunity for the development of alternative gadolinium-based compounds with an order of magnitude longer τ1e in a diluted form to be used as an efficient hyperthermia agent for clinical use. en_ZA
dc.description.sponsorship The authors received funding for this work from their home department, which is the School of Electrical & Information Engineering, University of Witwatersrand. en_ZA
dc.language.iso en en_ZA
dc.publisher Public Library of Science en_ZA
dc.rights Copyright: © 2016 Dinger et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. en_ZA
dc.subject Gadolinium compounds en_ZA
dc.subject Thermal conductivity en_ZA
dc.subject Paramagnetic contrast media en_ZA
dc.subject Electronic excitation en_ZA
dc.subject Spin-lattice relaxation en_ZA
dc.subject Resonance en_ZA
dc.title Thermal excitation of gadolinium-based contrast agents using spin resonance. en_ZA
dc.type Article en_ZA
dc.journal.volume 11 en_ZA
dc.journal.title PLoS ONE en_ZA
dc.description.librarian SP2016 en_ZA
dc.citation.doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0158194 en_ZA
dc.citation.issue 6 en_ZA


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