Traditional glue, adhesive and poison used for composite weapons by ju/'hoan san in nyae nyae, Namibia. implications for the evolution of hunting equipment in prehistory.

Show simple item record

dc.contributor.author Wadley, L.
dc.contributor.author Trower, G.
dc.contributor.author Backwell, L.
dc.contributor.author D'Errico, F.
dc.date.accessioned 2016-11-11T12:12:51Z
dc.date.available 2016-11-11T12:12:51Z
dc.date.issued 2015-10
dc.identifier.citation Wadley, L. et al. 2015. Traditional glue, adhesive and poison used for composite weapons by ju/'hoan san in nyae nyae, Namibia. implications for the evolution of hunting equipment in prehistory. PLoS ONE 10(10): e0140269. en_ZA
dc.identifier.issn 1932-6203
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10539/21444
dc.description.abstract Ju/'hoan hunters from Nyae Nyae, near Tsumkwe in Namibia, demonstrate the manufacture of three fixative pastes made from plant extracts, and poison made from grubs and plant extracts. Ammocharis coranica and Terminalia sericea produce simple glue. Ozoroa schinzii latex mixed with carbonized Aristeda adscensionis grass is a compound adhesive. Composite poison is made from Chrysomelid grub viscera mixed with salivary extracts of Acacia mellifera inner bark and the tuber sap of Asparagus exuvialis. In order to document potential variability in the chaîne opératoire, and to eliminate inherent biases associated with unique observations, we studied manufacturing processes in three separate Nyae Nyae villages. Although there are methodological similarities in the Nyae Nyae area, we observed a few differences in contemporary traditions of poison manufacture. For example, some hunters make powder from Asparagus exuvialis tuber sap by boiling, reducing, hardening and grinding it, while others simply use heated sap. The Ju/'hoan hunting kit provides insights for archaeologists, but we must exercise caution when looking for continuity between prehistoric and historical technical systems. Some traditions have been lost to modern hunters, while others are new. We should also expect variability in the Stone Age because of geographically restricted resources. Simple glue, compound adhesive, and poison recipes identified in the Stone Age have no modern equivalents. By about 60,000 years ago at Diepkloof, simple glue was used for hafting tools, but at similarly-aged Sibudu there are recipes that combine red ochre powder with plant and/or animal ingredients. At Border Cave, novel poisons and compound adhesives were used in the Early Later Stone Age. It is possible that the complexity that we record in the manufacture of fixative pastes and poison used by Ju/'hoan hunters represents a hafting system both similar to and different from that observed at the Stone Age sites of Diepkloof, Sibudu, and Border Cave. en_ZA
dc.description.sponsorship LW acknowledges, with thanks, a National Research Foundation (NRF) African Origins Platform grant (91595) (www.nrf.ac.za). en_ZA
dc.language.iso en en_ZA
dc.publisher Public Library of Science en_ZA
dc.rights © 2015 Wadley et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. en_ZA
dc.subject Archaeologists en_ZA
dc.subject Cell adhesion en_ZA
dc.subject Composite materials en_ZA
dc.subject Hunting en_ZA
dc.subject Archaeology en_ZA
dc.subject Hunting and Trapping en_ZA
dc.subject Acacia mellifera en_ZA
dc.subject Ammocharis coranica en_ZA
dc.subject Aristeda adscensionis en_ZA
dc.subject Asparagus exuvialis en_ZA
dc.subject bark en_ZA
dc.subject Chrysomelidae en_ZA
dc.subject controlled study en_ZA
dc.subject evolution en_ZA
dc.subject geography en_ZA
dc.subject grass en_ZA
dc.subject grinding en_ZA
dc.subject grub en_ZA
dc.subject medicinal plant en_ZA
dc.subject Namibia en_ZA
dc.subject nonhuman en_ZA
dc.subject Ozoroa schinzii en_ZA
dc.subject Stone Age en_ZA
dc.subject Terminalia sericea en_ZA
dc.subject tuber yield en_ZA
dc.subject weapon en_ZA
dc.title Traditional glue, adhesive and poison used for composite weapons by ju/'hoan san in nyae nyae, Namibia. implications for the evolution of hunting equipment in prehistory. en_ZA
dc.type Article en_ZA
dc.journal.volume 10 en_ZA
dc.journal.title PLoS ONE en_ZA
dc.description.librarian SP2016 en_ZA
dc.citation.doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0140269 en_ZA
dc.citation.issue 10 en_ZA


Files in this item

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record

Search WIReDSpace


Browse

My Account