ItemHepatitis B infection is causally associated with extrahepatic cancers A Mendelian randomization studyAbram Kamiza; Segum Fatumo; Mwiza Singini; Ching-Ching Yeh; Tinashe Chikowore ItemThe effects of exposure to HIV in neonates at a referral hospital in South AfricaHelena Mellqvist; Robin Saggers; Anders Eflvin; Elisabet Hentz; Daynia Ballot ItemVirologic response of adolescents living with perinatally acquired HIV receiving antiretroviral therapy in the period of early adolescence 1014 years in South AfricaP Nyakato; M Schomaker; Nosisa Sipambo; Karl-Gunter Technau; G Fatti; H Rabie; et.al et.al ItemCongenital Rubella Syndrome Surveillance in South Africa using a sentinel site approach A crosssectional studyNkengafac Villyen Motaze; Jack Manamela; Sheilagh Smit; Helena Rabie; Gary Reubenson; Daynia Ballot; David Moore; E et al; Cheryl Cohen; Melinda Suchard ItemDeterminants of poor adherence to antiretroviral treatment using a combined effect of age and education among human immunodeficiency virus infected young adults attending care at letaba hospital hiv clinic Limpopo Province South AfricaK Mabunda; E Ngamasana; Joseph Babalola; M Zunza; Peter Nyasulu ItemRheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in Gauteng on the decline : Experience at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital, Johannesburg. South Africa(2014-09) Celliers, A MBackground: The incidence of rheumatic fever (RF) and its complications has waned over the past three to four decades throughout the Western world, but RF remains a problem in developing countries and in the indigenous populations of some well-resourced countries. A marked decline in children presenting with acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and chronic rheumatic heart disease (RHD) has been observed over the past two decades at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital (CHBAH) in southern Gauteng Province, South Africa, which mainly serves the periurban population of Soweto. Objectives: To analyse the observed decline in ARF and RHD, and consider the reasons for the decrease. Methods: Review of children with ARF and RHD captured on a computerised database of all children seen in the Paediatric Cardiology Unit at CHBAH during 1993 - 2010. Results: The records of 467 children with ARF and RHD were retrieved from the database. The majority provided addresses in Gauteng, Soweto and North West Province. The number of children documented to have ARF or RHD declined from 64 in 1993 to 3 in 2010. Onethird of the patients underwent surgery, the majority mitral valve repair. Most of the patients requiring surgery had addresses in parts of Gauteng other than Soweto and other provinces, with relatively few originating from Soweto. Conclusion: The decline in the number of children with ARF and RHD presenting to CHBAH may be attributed to an improvement in socioeconomic conditions and better access to medical care for the referral population over the past two decades. ItemFocus on adolescents with HIV and AIDS(2014-12) Fairlie, L; Sipambo, N; Fick, C; et alAdolescents living with HIV, including those infected perinatally and non-perinatally, bear a disproportionate burden of the HIV epidemic in South Africa. This article discusses HIV management in adolescents including the following aspects: (i) burden of HIV disease, modes of HIV acquisition and implications for management; (ii) initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), outcomes and complications of ART in adolescents,including virological failure and switching regimens; (iii) adherence in adolescence, including factors that may contribute to poor adherence and advice to improve adherence; (iv) issues particular to adolescents, including sexual and reproductive health needs, disclosure to adolescents and by adolescents, and transition to adult care. This article aims to provide insights based on the literature and experience to assist the clinician to navigate the difficulties of managing HIV in adolescence and achieving successful transition to adult care.