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ItemAdhesion and Invasion of Breast and Oesophageal Cancer Cells Are Impeded by Anti-LRP/LR-Specific Antibody IgG1-iS18.(Public Library of Science., 2013-06-18) Khumalo, T.; Reusch, U.; Knackmuss, S.; Little, M.; Veale, R.B.; Weiss, S.F.T.Adhesion and invasion have been identified as the two key components of metastasis. The 37 kDa/67 kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR) is thought to enhance these two processes thus endorsing the progression of cancer. Here we report on LRP/LR and the metastatic potential of MDA-MB 231 breast and WHCO1 oesophageal cancer cells. Western blot analysis revealed a significant increase in total laminin receptor precursor (LRP) levels of breast and oesophageal cancer cells in comparison to non-invasive MCF-7 breast cancer cells, whereas LRP/LR cell surface levels in both cell lines were not significantly different to those of MCF-7 cells as analysed by flow cytometry. Incubation of breast and oesophageal cancer cells with the anti-LRP/LR specific antibody, IgG1-iS18, resulted in significant reduction in the adhesive potential of WHCO1 and MDA-MB 231 cells by 92% and 16%, respectively. Moreover, invasion was significantly impeded by 98% and 25% for WHCO1 and MDA-MB 231 cells, respectively. Pearson's correlation coefficients proved a positive correlation between total LRP/LR levels and invasive potential as well as between the adhesive and invasive potential of breast and oesophageal cancer cells. Our findings suggest that through interference of the LRP/LR-laminin-1 interaction, anti-LRP/LR specific antibody IgG1-iS18 may act as a possible alternative therapeutic tool for metastatic breast and oesophageal cancer treatment. ItemAnti-LRP/LR specific antibody IgG1-iS18 impedes adhesion and invasion of liver cancer cells.(Public Library of Science., 2014-05-05) Khumalo, T.; Reusch, U.; Knackmuss, S.; Little, M.; Weiss, S.F.T.; Chetty, C.; Da Costa Dias, B.Two key events, namely adhesion and invasion, are pivotal to the occurrence of metastasis. Importantly, the 37 kDa/67 kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR) has been implicated in enhancing these two events thus facilitating cancer progression. In the current study, the role of LRP/LR in the adhesion and invasion of liver cancer (HUH-7) and leukaemia (K562) cells was investigated. Flow cytometry revealed that the HUH-7 cells displayed significantly higher cell surface LRP/LR levels compared to the poorly-invasive breast cancer (MCF-7) control cells, whilst the K562 cells displayed significantly lower cell surface LRP/LR levels in comparison to the MCF-7 control cells. However, Western blotting and densitometric analysis revealed that all three tumorigenic cell lines did not differ significantly with regards to total LRP/LR levels. Furthermore, treatment of liver cancer cells with anti-LRP/LR specific antibody IgG1-iS18 (0.2 mg/ml) significantly reduced the adhesive potential of cells to laminin-1 and the invasive potential of cells through the ECM-like Matrigel, whilst leukaemia cells showed no significant differences in both instances. Additionally, Pearson's correlation coefficients suggested direct proportionality between cell surface LRP/LR levels and the adhesive and invasive potential of liver cancer and leukaemia cells. These findings suggest the potential use of anti-LRP/LR specific antibody IgG1-iS18 as an alternative therapeutic tool for metastatic liver cancer through impediment of the LRP/LR- laminin-1 interaction. ItemAssessing Global Transcriptome Changes in Response to South African Cassava Mosaic Virus [ZA-99] Infection in Susceptible Arabidopsis thaliana.(Public Library of Science., 2013-06-27) Pierce, E.J.; Rey, M.E.C.In susceptible plant hosts, co-evolution has favoured viral strategies to evade host defenses and utilize resources to their own benefit. The degree of manipulation of host gene expression is dependent on host-virus specificity and certain abiotic factors. In order to gain insight into global transcriptome changes for a geminivirus pathosystem, South African cassava mosaic virus [ZA:99] and Arabidopsis thaliana, 4×44K Agilent microarrays were adopted. After normalization, a log2 fold change filtering of data (p<0.05) identified 1,743 differentially expressed genes in apical leaf tissue. A significant increase in differential gene expression over time correlated with an increase in SACMV accumulation, as virus copies were 5-fold higher at 24 dpi and 6-fold higher at 36 dpi than at 14 dpi. Many altered transcripts were primarily involved in stress and defense responses, phytohormone signalling pathways, cellular transport, cell-cycle regulation, transcription, oxidation-reduction, and other metabolic processes. Only forty-one genes (2.3%) were shown to be continuously expressed across the infection period, indicating that the majority of genes were transient and unique to a particular time point during infection. A significant number of pathogen-responsive genes were suppressed during the late stages of pathogenesis, while during active systemic infection (14 to 24 dpi), there was an increase in up-regulated genes in several GO functional categories. An adaptive response was initiated to divert energy from growth-related processes to defense, leading to disruption of normal biological host processes. Similarities in cell-cycle regulation correlated between SACMV and Cabbage leaf curl virus (CaLCuV), but differences were also evident. Differences in gene expression between the two geminiviruses clearly demonstrated that, while some global transcriptome responses are generally common in plant virus infections, temporal host-specific interactions are required for successful geminivirus infection. To our knowledge this is the first geminivirus microarray study identifying global differentially expressed transcripts at 3 time points. ItemDownregulation of the Non-Integrin Laminin Receptor Reduces Cellular Viability by Inducing Apoptosis in Lung and Cervical Cancer Cells.(Public Library of Science., 2013-03-05) Moodley, K.; Weiss, S.F.T.The non-integrin laminin receptor, here designated the 37-kDa/67-kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR), is involved in many physiologically relevant processes, as well as numerous pathological conditions. The overexpression of LRP/LR on various cancerous cell lines plays critical roles in tumour metastasis and angiogenesis. This study investigated whether LRP/LR is implicated in the maintenance of cellular viability in lung and cervical cancer cell lines. Here we show a significant reduction in cellular viability in the aforementioned cell lines as a result of the siRNA-mediated downregulation of LRP. This reduction in cellular viability is due to increased apoptotic processes, reflected by the loss of nuclear integrity and the significant increase in the activity of caspase-3. These results indicate that LRP/LR is involved in the maintenance of cellular viability in tumorigenic lung and cervix uteri cells through the blockage of apoptosis. Knockdown of LRP/LR by siRNA might represent an alternative therapeutic strategy for the treatment of lung and cervical cancer. ItemThe Drosophila retinoblastoma binding protein 6 family member has two isoforms and is potentially involved in embryonic patterning.(MDPI AG, 2015-05) Hull, R.; Oosthuysen, B.; Cajee, U.-F.; Mokgohloa, L.; Nweke, E.; Antunes, R.J.; Coetzer, T.H.T.; Ntwasa, M.The human retinoblastoma binding protein 6 (RBBP6) is implicated in esophageal, lung, hepatocellular and colon cancers. Furthermore, RBBP6 was identified as a strong marker for colon cancer prognosis and as a predisposing factor in familial myeloproliferative neoplasms. Functionally, the mammalian protein interacts with p53 and enhances the activity of Mdm2, the prototypical negative regulator of p53. However, since RBBP6 (known as PACT in mice) exists in multiple isoforms and pact−/− mice exhibit a more severe phenotype than mdm2−/− mutants, it must possess some Mdm2-independent functions. The function of the invertebrate homologue is poorly understood. This is complicated by the absence of the Mdm2 gene in both Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans. We have experimentally identified the promoter region of Snama, the Drosophila homologue, analyzed potential transcription factor binding sites and confirmed the existence of an additional isoform. Using band shift and co-immunoprecipitation assays combined with mass spectrometry, we found evidence that this gene may be regulated by, amongst others, DREF, which regulates hundreds of genes related to cell proliferation. The potential transcription factors for Snama fall into distinct functional groups, including anteroposterior embryonic patterning and nucleic acid metabolism. Significantly, previous work in mice shows that pact−/− induces an anteroposterior phenotype in embryos when rescued by simultaneous deletion of p53. Taken together, these observations indicate the significance of RBBP6 proteins in carcinogenesis and in developmental defects. ItemEvaluation of Physicochemical Properties of South African Cashew Apple Juice as a Biofuel Feedstock.(Hindawi Publishing Corp, 2015) Deenanath, E.D.; Rumbold, K.; Daramola, M.; Falcon, R.; Iyuke, S.Cashew apple juice (CAJ) is one of the feedstocks used for biofuel production and ethanol yield depends on the physical and chemical properties of the extracted juice. As far as can be ascertained, information on physical and chemical properties of South African cashew apple juice is limited in open literature. Therefore, this study provides information on the physical and chemical properties of the South African cashew apple juice. Physicochemical characteristics of the juice, such as specific gravity, pH, sugars, condensed tannins, Vitamin C, minerals, and total protein, were measured from a mixed variety of cashew apples. Analytical results showed the CAJ possesses specific gravity and pH of 1.050 and 4.52, respectively. The highest sugars were glucose (40.56 gL(-1)) and fructose (57.06 gL(-1)). Other chemical compositions of the juice were condensed tannin (55.34 mgL(-1)), Vitamin C (112mg/100 mL), and total protein (1.78 gL(-1)). The minerals content was as follows: zinc (1.39 ppm), copper (2.18 ppm), magnesium (4.32 ppm), iron (1.32 ppm), sodium (5.44 ppm), and manganese (1.24 ppm). With these findings, South African CAJ is a suitable biomass feedstock for ethanol production. ItemHigh resolution imaging study of interactions between the 37 kDa/67 kDa laminin receptor and APP, beta-secretase and gamma-secretase in Alzheimer's disease.(Public Library of Science., 2014-06-27) Jovanovic, K.; Loos, B.; Da Costa Dias, B.; Penny, C.; Weiss, S.F.T.Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of dementia affecting the elderly. Neurodegeneration is caused by the amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide which is generated from the sequential proteolytic cleavage of the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) by the β- and γ- secretases. Previous reports revealed that the 37 kDa/67 kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR) is involved in APP processing, however, the exact mechanism by which this occurs remains largely unclear. This study sought to assess whether LRP/LR interacted with APP, β- or γ-secretase. Detailed confocal microscopy revealed that LRP/LR showed a strong co-localisation with APP, β- and γ-secretase, respectively, at various sub-cellular locations. Superresolution Structured Illumination Microscopy (SR-SIM) showed that interactions were unlikely between LRP/LR and APP and β-secretase, respectively, while there was strong co-localisation between LRP/LR and γ-secretase at this 80 nm resolution. FRET was further employed to assess the possibility of protein-protein interactions and only an interaction between LRP/LR and γ-secretase was found. FLAG co-immunoprecipitation confirmed these findings as LRP/LR co-immunoprecipitated with γ-secretase, but failed to do so with APP. These findings indicate that LRP/LR exerts its influence on Aβ shedding via a direct interaction with the γ-secretase and possibly an indirect interaction with the β-secretase. ItemIn Vitro Inhibition of Angiogenesis by Antibodies Directed against the 37kDa/67kDa Laminin Receptor(Public Library of Science, 2013-03-12) Khusal, R.; Da Costa Dias, B; Moodley, K.; Penny, C.; Reusch, U.; Knackmuss, S.; Little, M.; Weiss, S.F.T.The 37kDa/67kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR) is a central receptor mediating interactions between tumour cells and the basement membrane and is thereby a key player in adhesion and invasion, essential processes in metastatic cancer. To affect continued tumour growth, tumours induce angiogenesis for the constant delivery of nutrients and oxygen. This study aims to determine the blocking effect of the anti-LRP/LR specific antibody, W3 on the angiogenic potential of HUVE (human umbilical vein endothelial) cells. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that 97% of HUVE cells display cell surface LRP/LR. An angiogenesis assay was conducted employing HUVE cells seeded on the basement membrane reconstituent Matrigel™ supplemented with the pro-angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Post 18h incubation at 37°C tubular structures, namely tube lengths were assessed. Treatment of established tubular structures with 100 μg/ml anti-LRP/LR specific antibody completely blocked angiogenesis. Our findings suggest a central role of the 37kDa/67kDa LRP/LR in tube formation and recommends anti-LRP/LR specific antibodies as potential therapeutic tools for treatment of tumour angiogenesis. ItemKnock-down of the 37kDa/67kDa laminin receptor LRP/LR impedes telomerase activity.(Public Library of Science., 2015-11-06) Naidoo, K.; Malindisa, S.T.; Otgaar, T.C.; Da Costa Dias, B.; Ferreirra, E.; Reusch, U.; Knackmuss, S.; Little, M.; Weiss, S.F.T.; Letsolo, B.T.Cancer has become a major problem worldwide due to its increasing incidence and mortality rates. Both the 37kDa/67kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR) and telomerase are overexpressed in cancer cells. LRP/LR enhances the invasiveness of cancer cells thereby promoting metastasis, supporting angiogenesis and hampering apoptosis. An essential component of telomerase, hTERT is overexpressed in 85-90% of most cancers. hTERT expression and increased telomerase activity are associated with tumor progression. As LRP/LR and hTERT both play a role in cancer progression, we investigated a possible correlation between LRP/LR and telomerase. LRP/LR and hTERT co-localized in the perinuclear compartment of tumorigenic breast cancer (MDA-MB231) cells and non-tumorigenic human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. FLAG® Co-immunoprecipitation assays confirmed an interaction between LRP/LR and hTERT. In addition, flow cytometry revealed that both cell lines displayed high cell surface and intracellular LRP/LR and hTERT levels. Knock-down of LRP/LR by RNAi technology significantly reduced telomerase activity. These results suggest for the first time a novel function of LRP/LR in contributing to telomerase activity. siRNAs targeting LRP/LR may act as a potential alternative therapeutic tool for cancer treatment by (i) blocking metastasis (ii) promoting angiogenesis (iii) inducing apoptosis and (iv) impeding telomerase activity. ItemKnockdown of LRP/LR Induces Apoptosis in breast and oesophageal cancer cells.(2015-10-01) Khumalo, T.; Ferreira, E.; Jovanovic, K.; Veale, R.B.; Weiss, S.F.T.Cancer is a global burden due to high incidence and mortality rates and is ranked the second most diagnosed disease amongst non-communicable diseases in South Africa. A high expression level of the 37kDa/67kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR) is one characteristic of cancer cells. This receptor is implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer cells by supporting tumor angiogenesis, metastasis and especially for this study, the evasion of apoptosis. In the current study, the role of LRP/LR on cellular viability of breast MCF-7, MDA-MB 231 and WHCO1 oesophageal cancer cells was investigated. Western blot analysis revealed that total LRP expression levels of MCF-7, MDA-MB 231 and WHCO1 were significantly downregulated by targeting LRP mRNA using siRNA-LAMR1. This knockdown of LRP/LR resulted in a significant decrease of viability in the breast and oesophageal cancer cells as determined by an MTT assay. Transfection of MDA-MB 231 cells with esiRNA-RPSA directed against a different region of the LRP mRNA had similar effects on LRP/LR expression and cell viability compared to siRNA-LAMR1, excluding an off-target effect of siRNALAMR1. This reduction in cellular viability is as a consequence of apoptosis induction as indicated by the exposure of the phosphatidylserine protein on the surface of breast MCF-7, MDA-MB 231 and oesophageal WHCO1 cancer cells, respectively, detected by an Annexin-V/FITC assay as well as nuclear morphological changes observed post-staining with Hoechst. These observations indicate that LRP/LR is crucial for the maintenance of cellular viability of breast and oesophageal cancer cells and recommend siRNA technology targeting LRP expression as a possible novel alternative technique for breast and oesophageal cancer treatment. ItemMethyl pyruvate protects a normal lung fibroblast cell line from irinotecan-induced cell death: Potential use as adjunctive to chemotherapy(Public Library of Science, 2017-08) Monchusi, B.; Ntwasa, M.The Warburg Effect, characterized by increased rate of glycolysis even under normoxic conditions, is one of the hallmarks of cancer. Relatively lower oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is also a characteristic feature in cancer cells. We hypothesized that interference with this phenomenon, by introducing exogenous pyruvate, would upset this cancer phenotype and boost the energy requirements of normal cells. We find that methyl pyruvate protects irinotecan-treated normal lung fibroblast cell line (MRC-5) probably by turning off the p53/p21 axis of the apoptotic pathways. When the MRC-5 fibroblasts recover in drug-free medium, the intrinsic apoptotic pathway is also turned off and the cells survive with no discernible exponential growth during the observation period. In contrast, the mere introduction of exogenous pyruvate kills the lung cancer cell line (A549). Although, functional p53 is important in the drug-induced cancer cell death, it is probably not essential because cancer cell lines with mutated p53 also die albeit less efficiently. We conclude that methyl pyruvate may preferentially kill cancer cells and protect normal cells during chemotherapy. ItemOverexpression, purification and characterisation of the Plasmodium falciparum Hsp70-z (PfHsp70-z) protein.(Public Library of Science., 2015-06-17) Zininga, T.; Hoppe, H.C.; Prinsloo.E.; Dirr, H.W.; Shonhai, A.; Achilonu, I.Six Hsp70-like genes are represented on the genome of Plasmodium falciparum. Of these two occur i0n the cytosol: P. falciparum Hsp70-z (PfHsp70-z) and PfHsp70-1. PfHsp70-1 is a well characterised canonical Hsp70 that facilitates protein quality control and is crucial for the development of malaria parasites. There is very little known about PfHsp70-z. However, PfHsp70-z is known to be essential and is implicated in suppressing aggregation of asparagine-rich proteins of P. falciparum. In addition, its expression at the clinical stage of malaria correlates with disease prognosis. Based on structural evidence PfHsp70-z belongs to the Hsp110 family of proteins. Since Hsp110 proteins have been described as nucleotide exchange factors (NEFs) of their canonical Hsp70 counterparts, it has been speculated that PfHsp70-z may serve as a NEF of PfHsp70-1. In the current study, P. falciparum cells cultured in vitro were subjected to heat stress, triggering the enhanced expression of PfHsp70-z. Biochemical assays conducted using recombinant PfHsp70-z protein demonstrated that the protein is heat stable and possesses ATPase activity. Furthermore, we observed that PfHsp70-z is capable of self-association. The structural-functional features of PfHsp70-z provide further evidence for its role as a chaperone and possible nucleotide exchange factor of PfHsp70-1. ItemThe persistence and ecological impacts of a cyanobacterium genetically engineered to express mosquitocidal Bacillus thuringiensis toxins.(BioMed Central Ltd., 2016-05-10) Ketseoglou, I.; Bouwer, G.Background: The cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120#11 has been genetically engineered to act as a delivery vehicle for Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies israelensis mosquitocidal toxins. To address ecological concerns about releasing this genetically engineered microorganism into the environment for mosquito larva control, the persistence and ecological impacts of PCC 7120#11 was evaluated using multi-species, standardized aquatic microcosms. Methods: The microcosms were set up as described in ASTM E1366-02 (Standard Practice for Standardized Aquatic Microcosms: Fresh Water), with a few modifications. The treatment group microcosms were inoculated with PCC 7120#11 and key water quality parameters and non-target effects were compared between the treatment and control groups over a period of 35 days. Results: PCC 7120#11 decreased from a concentration of 4.50 × 106 cells/ml (at inoculation) to 1.32 × 103 cells/ml after 4 weeks and larvicidal activity against third instar larvae of Anopheles arabiensis was only evident for two weeks after treatment. Both treatment and the interaction of treatment and time had a significant effect on nitrate, phosphate and photosynthetic microorganism concentrations. Treatment with PCC 7120#11 caused a temporary spike in ammonia in the microcosms a week after treatment, but the concentrations were well below acute and chronic criteria values for ammonia in freshwater ecosystems. Cyprinotus vidua concentrations were not significantly different between PCC 7120#11 and control microcosms. In PCC 7120#11 microcosms, Daphnia pulex concentrations were significantly lower than control concentrations between days 18 and 25. By the end of the experiment, none of the measured variables were significantly different between the treatment groups. Conclusions: The standard aquatic microcosm experiments provided more data on the ecological impacts of PCC 7120#11 than single-organism assessments would have. On the basis of the relatively minor, short-term effects that PCC 7120#11 had on water quality parameters and non-target invertebrates, further evaluation of PCC 7120#11 for use in integrated vector management is warranted. ItemUnveiling the micronome of cassava (manihot esculenta crantz).(Public Library of Science., 2016-01-01) Rogans, S.J.; Rey, C.MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an important class of endogenous non-coding single-stranded small RNAs (21-24 nt in length), which serve as post-transcriptional negative regulators of gene expression in plants. Despite the economic importance of Manihot esculenta Crantz (cassava) only 153 putative cassava miRNAs (from multiple germplasm) are available to date in miRBase (Version 21), and identification of a number of miRNAs from the cassava EST database have been limited to comparisons with Arabidopsis. In this study, mature sequences of all known plant miRNAs were used as a query for homologous searches against cassava EST and GSS databases, and additional identification of novel and conserved miRNAs were gleaned from next generation sequencing (NGS) of two cassava landraces (T200 from southern Africa and TME3 from West Africa) at three different stages post explant transplantation and acclimatization. EST and GSS derived data revealed 259 and 32 miRNAs in cassava, and one of the miRNA families (miR2118) from previous studies has not been reported in cassava. NGS data collectively displayed expression of 289 conserved miRNAs in leaf tissue, of which 230 had not been reported previously. Of the 289 conserved miRNAs identified in T200 and TME3, 208 were isomiRs. Thirty-nine novel cassava-specific miRNAs of low abundance, belonging to 29 families, were identified. Thirtyeight (98.6%) of the putative new miRNAs identified by NGS have not been previously reported in cassava. Several miRNA targets were identified in T200 and TME3, highlighting differential temporal miRNA expression between the two cassava landraces. This study contributes to the expanding knowledge base of the micronome of this important crop.