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- ItemThe adoption and ratification of the African Union's Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa: an analysis of the dicourse of states and the international humanitarian aid community(2012-10-17) Johnson, Hilton William EricThe phenomenon of internal displacement dwarfs the refugee crisis world-wide. Forced migration, and more specifically internal displacement, looms as one of the largest and most poorly understood humanitarian challenges currently facing states and the international humanitarian aid community in Africa. This research project aims to increase our understanding of internal displacement by factoring in the discourse of states and the international humanitarian aid community as a key contributing factor to our conceptualization of this phenomenon in Africa. Discourse analysis may demonstrate various “sites of struggle” as important messages and ideas from the various actors compete. The well-established notion of discourse framing and containing the responses of certain actors and institutions is at the heart of this research project. The international humanitarian aid community and Africa states have been described in various documents related to the 2009 Kampala Convention as playing leading roles in the provision of protection and assistance to internally displacedConvention as its discursive locus, analyzing selected texts (documents) that are related to the production, adoption and ratification processes of the Convention. This research report will include diachronic and synchronic analyses of the ID discourse, in the form of documents, for the purpose of exploring the key messages and ideas, which will then be contextualized with the incorporation of academic literature and information related to the phenomenon of internal and forced displacement in Africa. This research report will attempt to demonstrate the various ways in which the limits of the internal displacement discourse are constructed and negotiated by states and the international humanitarian aid community, in order for us gain a better understanding of the role that is played by this growing platform for international deliberation. persons. This paper uses the Kampala
- Item"At your own risk" : narratives of Zimbabwean migrant sex workers in Hillbrow and discourses of vulnerability, agency, and power.(2013-09-27) Schuler, GretaThis study explores the self-representations of cross-border migrant, female sex workers in Johannesburg and compares these representations to those created by public discourses around cross-border migration, sex work, and gender. With a focus on issues of agency, vulnerability, and power, the study questions the impact of prevalent representations of these women by others on their individual self-representations. The participatory approach of this study builds on previous participatory research projects with migrant sex workers in Johannesburg and employs creative writing as a methodology to generate narratives and thus adds to literature about alternative methodologies for reaching currently marginalised and under-researched groups. Organisations such as Sex Worker Education and Advocacy Taskforce (SWEAT) and Sisonke Sex Worker Movement have worked with sex workers to generate digital stories for advocacy; however, academic research employing storytelling as a methodology has not been done with migrant sex workers in South Africa. While existing evidence indicates that cross-border migrant, female sex workers are often marginalised by state and non-state actors professing to assist them, this study emphasizes the voices of the women themselves. Over the course of three months, I conducted creative writing workshops with five female Zimbabwean sex workers in Hillbrow, Johannesburg; the women generated stories in these workshops that became the basis for one-on-one unstructured interviews. I compared the self-representations that emerged from this process with the representations of migrant sex workers that I determined from a desk review of the websites of organisations that contribute to trafficking and sex work discourses in South Africa. With the Prevention and Combating of Trafficking in Persons Bill close to becoming law in South Africa and the prevalent assumption that systemic trafficking problems are related to the sex industry and irregular migration, developing a better understanding of migrants involved in sex work in South Africa is particularly important. Furthermore, a national focus on reducing and even preventing immigration—and the stigma attached to migrants—adds urgency to the elucidation of the lives of migrants. This study investigates how female Zimbabwean sex workers in Johannesburg—often positioned as vulnerable and sometimes misidentified as trafficked—see themselves in a country increasingly concerned with issues of (anti-)immigration and (anti-)trafficking. Furthermore, sex work is criminalized in South Africa and social mores attach stigma to prostitution. Contrary to assumptions that all sex workers are forced into the industry or foreign sex workers trafficked into the country, the participants in this study spoke of active choices in their lives—including choices about their livelihood and their movement—and describe their vulnerabilities and strengths. Perhaps the most striking similarity between participants was the women’s acknowledgement of the dangers they face and the decisions they make, weighing risks and gains. This recognition of agency ran through the six key themes that I generated through thematic analysis: Conflicting Representations of Sex Work, Stigma and Double Existence, Health and Safety, Importance of Independence, Morality of Remittances, and Mobility. Throughout the analysis, I argue that the participants in the study present themselves as aware of the dangers they face and calculating the risks. The participants responded enthusiastically to the creative writing methodology—through their stories, discussions, and interviews, they portrayed a complex, at times ambiguous, portrait of migrant sex workers in South Africa. While recognizing their double vulnerability—as illegally engaging in sex work and, often, illegally residing in South Africa, they also emphasized their strength and agency.
- ItemAuthority, trust and accountability : regulation of pharmaceutical drug trade practices in Yeoville.(2013-09-27) Cossa, Ema EuclesiaThe increase in use and distribution of pharmaceuticals on a global scale has caused pharmaceuticals to play an integral role in the notions of quality of health. This study is concerned with how Western medication is transacted and interpreted in explicit and implicit contrast to the other context. I observe the commercial trade of medicines, specifically the effects of regulation of pharmaceutical drug trade in a suburb of Johannesburg (Yeoville) a low income area where many migrant groups have found long and short term refuge. A Policing and Mobility Project (Hornberger & Cossa 2010) centred on tracing paths of medication and the level of policing thereof in Johannesburg revealed that clandestine sale of medication occurs in the suburb’s local market. This prompted a comparison between the formal and informal pharmaceutical trade spaces. Simon (a pharmacist) and Teresa (a former nurse turned market trader) sell pharmaceutical drugs in seemingly contrasting contexts. Despite their expertise in health care, Simon and Teresa were flung to opposite ends of the trade spectrum by regulation. In the weeks I spent with Teresa and Simon it became abundantly clear that the spaces which had been initially presented as the opposite of one another may have had a few layers of common ground. At first it seems as though only regulation has the ability to produce authority, trust and accountability. But later it becomes evident that such aspects can be reproduced through manipulation of everyday practices. Roger Cotterrell’s (1999) interpretation of Emile Durkheim’s view of the law as a ‘Social Fact’ (1999:9), demonstrates how the collective experience of regulation (an aspect of the law) affects the individual. But De Certeau (1984) claims that the same individual can tacitly undermine this collective experience (the dominant form) through everyday practices. The findings suggest that the assumed roles of regulated and unregulated pharmaceutical trading spaces are not as static as they appear. The study concluded that authority, trust and accountability can be reproduced outside of regulation. And secondly thus the formal and informal trade of pharmaceuticals in Yeoville have more in common than perceived since both Simon and Teresa, had authority in health, their customer’s trust and loyalty and were accountable within the trade.
- ItemBalancing opportunity and conflict: the impact of a refugee influx on the decentralisation process(2009-04-15T11:21:44Z) Blaser, CaitlinAbstract This study explores the impact a refugee influx has on the decentralisation process. It uses the case study of Loulouni, southern Mali, in 2005-2006, where a camp for Ivorian refugees was established. Using mixed methods including a large survey and many in depth interviews, this study has found that the refugee influx has had a profound and transformatory impact on decentralisation at the local level. In Mali, the decentralisation effort is closely tied to the promotion of participatory democracy in the country, and the refugee presence has further promoted interaction between citizens and local government officials. However, the arrival of resources in the form of humanitarian aid has also caused conflict between upwardly and downwardly accountable local government authorities, which threaten a complete transfer or powers.
- ItemChallenges in organising informal workers : a study of gendered home-based care work in post-apartheid South Africa.(2009-03-02T07:48:51Z) Munakamwe, JanetThe purpose of the current study was to determine the constraints to and opportunities for organising the gendered home-based care sector in post apartheid South Africa. Also the gender aspect of care work has been closely examined and the study has revealed that societal stereotypes that view care work as women work in the private sphere have to a greater extent contributed to the devaluation of care work in both society and as a form of paid care work. Qualitative research methodology was used in the form of documentary analysis, interviews and participant observation. The research findings demonstrate that unions themselves, resources and legislation/ policy issues pose as major barriers to organising these atypical workers. Generally, most unions are not yet ready to embrace informal workers into the mainstream as it entails innovation of new organising strategies that could be out of their comfort zone, the pumping out of a vast amount of resources and the avoidance of the huge obligation of breaking through legal barriers. Grassroot mobilising around gender needs has been proposed as the most appropriate strategy for organising the newly emerging mobile and precarious workforce which comprises principally of women. An undeniable link between the formal and informal economy has also been confirmed as formal institutions such as NGOs, hospital, clinics and private companies through the Expanded Public Works Programme here in South Africa make use of informal labour to execute their obligations in the HBC sector. From a gender perspective, this study argues that female jobs are despised by society let alone trade unions where democracy and gender sensitivity should be practiced. Devaluation of female jobs herein care work could be the reason why NEHAWU has taken too long to organise the HBC sector. Finally, results of the study have demistified the societal stereotypes that female jobs are difficult to organise as HBC workers were more than willing to join NEHAWU.
- ItemThe claim for urban space and the problem of exclusion: the perception of outsiders' rights by communities affected by xenophobic violence in contemporary South Africa(2012-08-21) Ogunyemi, SamsonThis research is located in the broader body of literature and activity that have sought to comprehend the xenophobic violence of 2008 in South Africa and the persistence of this phenomenon, especially in poor locales of the main urban areas. The primary objective is to explore the perceptions that South Africans have of the rights of those people designated as outsiders and/or foreigners who live in areas that have experienced xenophobic violence targeting foreigners as well as people of South African minority ethnic groups. This study attempts to unpack the discourse of insider versus outsider rights within South African communities in relation to South Africa’s recent history - the xenophobic violence of 2008. Notably, it examines the challenge brought about by the crushing of space and time as an effect of globalization and how this has contributed to the process of multi-culturalism and multi-ethnicity that local communities are largely unprepared to cope with. This study contributes to the understanding of “otherness” as a key issue to design and implement better policies and practices that are necessary to promote the social and spatial inclusion of international migrants in Africa and the world. The empirics of this study give credence to the view that migrants’ rights operate at the rhetorical level, largely due to the lack of political will to translate them into actual benefits. The study specifically looks at two communities affected by xenophobic violence - Tembisa and Alexandra. Focusing on South Africans, the study draws on information gathered through in-depth semi-structured interviews and group discussions carried out from July through October 2011. The findings are examined through thematic content analysis.
- ItemEffects of perceptions and negotiation of decision making on gender relations, masculinity and contested patriachy among immigrant-South African households in Johannesburg, South Africa(2014-01-31) Aaca, Lisa RebeccaThe study aimed at understanding how immigrant men and South African women in heterosexual relationships perceive and negotiate gender relations arising from household decision-making; and the effects these have on notions of masculinity among couples living in Johannesburg, South Africa. In order to investigate the research question, I used qualitative descriptive approaches with a poststructuralist perspective. The study drew on Foucault’s conceptualization of power and identified eight (8) immigrant men originating from other African countries and eight (8) South African women using purposive and snowball sampling. All individuals recruited were of at least eighteen years of age and had lived with their partners for at least two years. I perceived a minimum of two years of living together as adequate for differences in culture and socialization of people in immigrant-South African relationships to manifest in the performance of gender; and to equip participants with different constructions of decision-making, gender relations and masculinity. I selected men from other African countries because of the exclusionary discourses surrounding them in South Africa. Data was collected using face-to-face in-depth semi structured interviews with open-ended questions. Data analysis was undertaken using both thematic and discourse analysis. In doing the thematic analysis, work by Braun and Clarke (2006) was drawn on while work by Parker (1994, 1997 and 2005) was focused on for the discourse analysis. The study found that immigration and difference in nationality shape the different perceptions that determine decisions on formation of immigrant-South African relationships; affect income inequalities and decisions on expenditures; as well as decisions related to children in immigrant-South African households; and that these affect gender relations and notions of masculinity. The study further found that there are contradiction between gender equality and traditionally acceptable gender roles; as well as patriarchal and anti-patriarchal socializations by immigrant men and South African women. It also found that immigrant men and South African women use similar strategies in reviving and silencing of transgressed masculinity.
- ItemExploring the psychological needs of cross-border unaccompanied minors in Johannesburg: how cross-border unaccompanied minors are challenging psychosocial programmes(2012-08-24) Johnston, LibbyBackground: This research investigates the psychosocial needs of cross-border unaccompanied minors (UAMs) within urban Johannesburg, a city that attracts nearly half of all the cross-border migrant population in South Africa (Landau and Gindrey, 2008). The focus of the research is dual; firstly, it explores what the prime psychosocial needs of UAMs are by eliciting them from the UAMs themselves via participatory research workshops. South Africa, by law, has an obligation to all UAMs to provide for them. By ascertaining these needs, this study reveals discrepancies between existing psychosocial programmes designed and provided by the government or service providers and the needs of the UAM. Secondly, the research examines how UAMs are trying to satisfy their psychosocial needs. Identifying the psychosocial needs of UAMs and their coping mechanisms gives us a better understanding of the nature of the issues UAMs face, as well as their subjective perception of and priority they place on those issues. This can consequently contribute (a) to providing constructive suggestions on designing psychosocial programmes by governmental, nongovernmental organisations (NGOs), and non-profit organisations (NPOs) and (b) valuable input to further research on livelihood-seeking UAMs, a group that is currently under-represented in cross-border UAM studies, unlike asylum seeking or refugee UAMs. Aims: The aim of this study is to understand the psychosocial needs of UAMs and how they are meeting those needs in Johannesburg. This will provide insights on the nature of the psychosocial needs of UAMs that will ultimately be helpful both to government agencies as well as NGOs and NPOs responsible for programme planning, legislation, and execution of policies regarding cross-border UAMs. Finally, the study aims to draw attention to livelihood-seeking UAMs and to encourage further research on this particular group of UAMs. Therefore my research question is: what are the psychosocial needs of cross-border UAMs in Johannesburg? Methods: In this study, a qualitative research approach is used with the aim of uncovering the psychosocial needs of cross-border UAMs. This was done by using participatory action research and a visual methodology. The data was elicited via two participatory workshops, the first with 36 cross-border minors participants and the second with 12 cross-border UAM participants. This was followed by a series of group discussions after the workshops. Afterwards, a comparison between the participants’ visual inputs with their narratives and responses allowed me to extrapolate their psychosocial needs and ways in which they meet those needs. Adding to the study, 11 semi-structured interviews were conducted with service providers from various organisations, both non-governmental and governmental. Finally, the data was compiled from both the cross-border UAM s and service providers to answer the research question and objectives. Conclusion: This research identifies and discusses the following psychosocial needs of crossborder UAMs: family, a care-giver, documentation, fitting-in with their South African peers, security, schooling, better life quality (economic and social advancement), counselling, and playing. The four themes in bold text represent psychosocial needs, which continue to be unmet or unfulfilled by service providers current responses. Although the basic (ontological) needs of cross-border UAMs seem to be met (i.e., food, housing, clothing), psychosocial needs - those needed for emotional well-being - are undermined because service providers do not see them as fundamental as basic needs. One conclusion from my study is that NGOs can better cater to UAMs’ psychosocial needs due to their flexible infrastructure that can accommodate personalisation and prompt redesigning of programmes offered, in contradistinction to the recalcitrant governmental infrastructure. Currently service providers, such as governmental departments, NGOs and NPOs use the law (such as the Children’s Act (2008)), regulations or psychosocial programmes to aid cross-border UAMs, but these laws and programmes are manufactured for either homogenous groups or very specific groups such as refugees and asylum seekers. However, there are persisting gaps in the services available. These gaps are due to the varied nature of psychosocial needs that each ‘child’ has to meet, which is also contingent on their own background and personality. Under the Children’s Act (2008), minors are categorised as a homogeneous group and therefore individual needs are overlooked. Organisations both governmental and non-governmental have tried to incorporate child friendly practices, although in most of the interviews it was mentioned that policy, such as the Children’s Act (2008), is not necessarily ‘child’ or ‘family’ friendly. Overall this research indicates that NGOs and NPOs are well-equipped to cater to the psychosocial needs of UAMs, such as school, family reunification and basic needs. Certain psychosocial needs, however, such as ‘fitting-in’, are still unmet. In these cases, UAMs resort to catering to their own needs (lke living on the street in selfappointed families), relying on service providers for emotional support and/or basic needs.
- ItemGaining an understanding of Umnyama from the Zionist churches: a case study of Zimbabwean migrants in Johannesburg, South Africa(2012-01-20) Zulu, MelekiasWhen migrants move, they move with their religious beliefs and practices. What happens to those religious beliefs and practices in the country of migration? Is there change or continuity in religious affiliation? While much of the literature on Zimbabweans is largely focused on their reasons for migration, the policies, laws and difficulties they encounter in South Africa; this study examines how Zimbabwean migrants use religion in the host country. This study investigates if and how migration affects Zimbabwean migrants’ religious beliefs and practices. This study explores how Zionist churches respond to the existential needs of migrants and their worldviews; specifically looking at the responses offered to metaphysical challenges like umnyama (misfortune) of Zimbabwean migrants in Johannesburg.
- ItemGiving birth in a foreign land : maternal health-care experiences among Zimbabwean migrant women living in Johannesburg, South Africa.(2014-09-11) Makandwa, TacksonThe republic of South Africa has a “health for all” policy, regardless of nationality and residence status. However, challenges still exist for non-nationals and little is known regarding migrants’ maternal healthcare experiences. This study explores the maternal healthcare experiences of migrant Zimbabwean women living in Johannesburg, South Africa. It focuses on the lived experiences of women aged 18years and above, who engaged with the public healthcare system in Johannesburg during pregnancy and childbirth. A desk review of the literature was undertaken. The theoretical framework in this study draws from three concepts (1) the Social determinants of health framework (WHO 2010), (2) the Access to healthcare framework (McIntyre, Thiede and Brich 2009) and (3) the “three-delays (Nour 2008). Primary data was collected through the use of open-ended semi-structured interviews with a sample of 15 migrant Zimbabwean women who have been in Johannesburg for a minimum of 2 years, and have attended and given birth or are currently attending antenatal care in inner city Johannesburg. Thematic content analysis was used to analyse data since it helps to extract descriptive information concerning the experiences of Zimbabwean women in Johannesburg and to construct meaning in order to understand their perceptions and opinions about the healthcare system in the city. Although the findings indicate that documentation status is not a key issue affecting access to healthcare during pregnancy and delivery, a range of other healthcare barriers were found to dominate, including the nature of their employment, power relations, language, and discrimination(generally) among others. Language was singled out as the major challenge that runs throughout the other barriers. More interestingly the participants raised their desire of returning home or changing facilities within the Public sector or to private institutions in case of any further pregnancy. This study concludes that the bone of contention is on belongingness, deservingness and not being able to speak any local language, that runs through the public health care institutions and this impact on professionalism and discharge of duties.
- ItemThe impact of informal social networks on integration - a case study of migrant learners at Jules High School in central Johannesburg.(2013-03-19) Hoehne, DaliaIn the absence of governmental programs which facilitate and support integration, this study looks at strategies that migrants, and in particular migrant children themselves, develop and the experience they have of the process of integration into the South African host society. Thereby, this study assesses the role that informal social networks play for migrant learners at inner-city schools in Johannesburg with regards to their integration into the school environment in particular and into the broader host society in general. Following a case study approach, I primarily focused on the school, namely Jules High School, as an environment where such networks exist since the school environment is considered as a place where social contacts and interactions with the host population necessarily occur that can be vital in support of integration. In order to explore the role of informal social networks for migrant learners, quantitative interviews with 98 Jules High School students (survey) were conducted, complemented by a focus group discussion as well as qualitative interviews with three key informants.
- ItemMaking meaning amidst xenophobia: how Apolistic Zionist Churches make sense of outsiders, scarcity, and entitlement in Alexandra Township, South Africa(2012-02-28) Hartman, BeccaReports from the May 2008 surge of ‘xenophobic’ violence in Johannesburg’s Alexandra Township and across the country name the causes of the attacks as: poor service delivery and high unemployment; a sense of entitlement and chauvinistic nativism; increasingly pervasive and publicly accepted anti-foreigner sentiments alongside a practice of vigilante justice; and the absence or agendas of local leadership. Drawing on these reports’ findings this dissertation firstly names the conceptual foundations that describe the causes and overlap with political and religious rhetoric: entitlement and work; outsider and insider; and scarcity and abundance. The role of leadership is utilised for its structural, as well as existing conceptual implications. Secondly, this research uses analysis of discourses of the above named concepts, observed in two meaning-making institutions located in and near Alexandra Township’s, where the 2008 surge began. These case studies are one majority Zulu and one majority Xhosa Apostolic Zionist Churches, and are based on one month of ethnographic research in each church and semi-structured interviews with approximately one third of both churches’ members and leaders, commonly using translation. Finally, this dissertation argues that the particularities of these churches position them as unique pockets of passive resistance to the xenophobic mobilisations that have and continue to engage many of South Africa’s Township residents, through a savvy assessment of needs and strategies; these reflect both the historic moment from which such churches emerged in South Africa and members’ current experiences as urban labour migrants. Ultimately, this research aims to provide insight into the role of one particular type of meaning-making and action-shaping institution, in areas where traditional political engagement often does not operate.
- ItemManaging the final journey home: exploring perceptions, experiences and responses to death among Congolese migrants in Johannesburg(2014-01-22) Kwigomba, DariusThe study explores perceptions and responses of Congolese migrants when they experience the death of other migrants. The study takes an ethnographic qualitative approach and gathers data from three Congolese ethnic groups living in Johannesburg. This is done by observing and participating in their funeral ceremonies as well as interviewing community members. The primary objective of this study is to understand the cultural changes migrants experience as a result of migration by exploring social, economic and cultural challenges migrants encounter when experiencing death of a fellow migrant. Findings of this study indicate migrants strive to observe their home culture in the hosting country. Marginalisation is the acculturation strategy that explains their ways of dealing with death in South Africa. Results further indicate migrants’ perceptions of experiences and ways of dealing with death out of their places of origin are negatively annotated. This is due to difficulties in recreating elements of their own culture as well as the absence of people who are traditionally responsible for dealing with death among the migrant community. Lastly some causes of death, such as HIV/AIDS, are highly stigmatized. This study contributes to the scarce literature existent on the topic of perceptions and responses to death among migrants.
- ItemMemory and violence: Displaced Zimbabwean rural communities reliving the memories of the March 2008 political violence.(2014-08-26) Mvundura, WellingtonThis thesis is premised on the argument that a distinct kind of narrative (‘truth’) about political violence, a narrative of the first-person experience, a narrative that is valued for its power to counter totalising historical narratives, is thought to reside in the subjective experience of each individual. Be that as it may, this study aimed to answer the question: What meanings do rural Zimbabweans who were internally displaced by the March 2008 state-sponsored political violence attach to this violence? In particular, the study investigated these meanings in a context where the victims remain(ed) in close proximity to the perpetrators during and after the violence. It also examined these meanings in an alleged silence by the state and local communities, and how these meanings have shaped the victims’ present socio-political identities. In order to answer the question, in-depth narrative interviews were conducted with purposively selected respondents. The study assumed a qualitative exploratory design which was underpinned by the phenomenological and constructionist theoretical approaches. It was concluded that the victims’ interpretation of the state-sponsored political violence is negotiated and mediated in the course of interaction. The personal narrative of the memory attains some latent political and redemptive value when it is interpreted in a social context. The meanings of the violence particularly assume a complex moral and ethical plane in a scenario where the perpetrator remains a permanent feature in the victim’s physical and social space, without any recourse. The complexity is imminent as the victim has to contend with the socio-psychological effects of the daily direct interface with their unpunished aggressor especially due to the communal nature of rural life. It was also concluded that the 2008 state-sponsored violence was increasingly interpreted as unfinished business by the victims. More so, it was also understood to be synonymous and complicit with silence at the communal and national level. Thus, the silence was synonymous with adaptation to power relations, cultural censorship, and liminality. In terms of identity, the victims suffer an identity crisis. They have developed personalities that have arguably, failed to internalise a sense of self as trusting and trustworthy. Last, the identification of the violence as unfinished business has also led to the reaffirmation of the victims’ spiritual identities as they have invoked bewitchment to avenge the death of their loved ones and in the process try to reconnect with them spiritually by invoking their spirits to seek revenge.
- ItemMicrofinance as a livelihood strategy: A case study of forced migrants in Johannesburg(2014-06-13) Kamugi, WatetuMicrofinance as a tool for development has been used all over the world in combating poverty and improving livelihoods. It is described as the provision of savings, credit and insurance services to low income earners and the very poor in society through Microfinance Institutions (MFI). Additionally, MFI provide vocational training in various skills such as hand crafts, business and language skills. Livelihoods on the other hand constitute the ways in which people access and mobilise resources that enable them to increase their economic security thus reducing the vulnerability created and exacerbated by conflict, and how these resources help them pursue goals necessary for their survival. As a livelihoods strategy for refugees, the services of MFI have mainly been employed in camp settings, with few projects run for urban refugees. Many reasons arise for the difficulty in employing it as a livelihood strategy in urban settings, with the most common being the fluidity and mobility of urban refugees that renders them a risky group to lend money, grants or training to. This study explores the accessibility of microfinance to forced migrants and refugees living in the economic hub of Africa, Johannesburg. The findings suggest that refugees and other forced migrants receiving microfinance heard about the MFI in this particular study- Jesuit Refugee Services (JRS), from their social networks of family and friends while those who had never heard about JRS or any other organization offering microfinance services were in completely different social networks and were of different nationalities from the beneficiaries. As such, the question of accessibility to microfinance is linked to availability of information through social networks. Language also proved to influence the livelihood strategies adapted by the different refugees. Refugees who could speak English and other South African languages were in employment or in trade ventures as they could communicate with host nationals. This is unlike those refugees who only spoke French and Lingala, languages not spoken by South Africans. As such, they needed language training so as to enable them to communicate. The study also found that the main problems faced by refugees in Johannesburg are lack of employment, problems with accommodation, difficulty in enrolling children in public schools and raising the required school fees and difficulties in accessing social services. The research report concludes by recommending solutions to MFI and other organizations whose mandate is to assist refugees and other forced migrants to embrace all vulnerable refugees within the MFI in an effort to make MFI available to all who require their services.
- ItemMigrant comunities' coping with socio-political violence: a case study of Zimbabwe Action Movement in Johannesburg, South Africa(2010-08-10) Ndlovu, Duduzile S.Abstract This dissertation is based on a qualitative study conducted in Johannesburg to explore the meanings that a group of Zimbabwean migrants attach to experiences of socio-political violence, called Gukurahundi. Violence has been shown to have traumatic consequences, but the meaning of the trauma is mediated by the context in which it occurs further on meanings have been shown to be central to the healing strategies and mechanisms employed to cope with the effects of the violence. Text from in-depth interviews and songs composed by participants in this study formed the narrative text of experiences of violence that was analysed using narrative methods. Key interpretations of the Gukurahundi violence found in this study were framed in political terms and coping strategies employed were also political. Coping is linked to the meanings attached to experiences and thus responding to socio political violence requires a consideration of the context and the meanings attached if it is to be relevant.
- ItemMigrant women in sex work: does urban space impact self-(re)presentation in Hillbrow, Johannesburg(2011-07-06) Oliveira, Elsa AlexandraRationale: Urbanization is rapidly taking place in Africa: fifty percent of the continent‘s population is expected to be living in urban areas by 2030 (Kok and Collinson in Vearey 2010b). Both internal1 and cross-border migrants2 are moving into South Africa’s urban centers at a faster rate than her neighboring countries; approximately 60 percent of the population is estimated to be urban (ibid). The worldwide increase in urbanization requires that research recognize the trajectories of people moving into these urban spaces, as well as the experiences that people encounter as they navigate urban centers (Kihato, 2010, Landau 2006a, 2006b, Vearey 2010a, 2010b, Venables, 2010). Many migrants in inner-city Johannesburg engage in unconventional survival strategies, including sex work (e.g. Richter 2010). Although sex work is considered an informal livelihood strategy, it is currently illegal in South Africa (UNAIDS, 2009). Research on sex work in South Africa is limited; however, there is significant evidence that sex workers in inner-city Johannesburg experience unsafe, unhealthy- often times violent- working and living conditions (e.g. Nyangairi, 2010, Richeter, 2010). This research is primarily interested in exploring the ways in which “marginalized” urban migrant groups choose to represent themselves versus the incomplete (re) presentation that is often relegated to them. A focus on representation will provide an opportunity for policy makers, programmers and academics to gain insight and better comprehend the experiences of migrant urban populations. In this case, the researcher is looking specifically at migrant women who sell sex as an entry point into the larger issues of (re) presentation among individuals and communities who are often described as “vulnerable” and/or “marginal”. Aim: The aim of this research project is to explore how migrant women who sell sex in Hillbrow, Johannesburg (re) present themselves, and how (or not) urban space affects these self- (re) presentations. Methods: The epistemological framework for the methodologies used in this study was Participatory Action Research (PAR), and the primary data collection methodology used consisted of an eleven-day participatory photo project where the research participants were given digital cameras and asked to photograph the “story” that they would like to share. Upon completion of the participatory photo workshop, five research participants were randomly selected to participate in 2-3 sessions of in-depth, semi-structured narrative interviews where the researcher explored the choice of photos taken, as well as the reasons why the photos were selected to (re) present themselves. Conclusion: This study has shown that use of Participatory Action Research as an epistemological framework is both conducive and appropriate when researching ‘hard to reach’ groups of people residing in complex urban areas. Furthermore, this research signals the need for greater inclusion of participants in studies aimed at understanding individual/group experience, especially when working with marginalized communities. This study also reveals a host of future research opportunities for those interested in exploring: (1) identity in urban space/urban health, (2) livelihood experiences/strategies of people living in densely populated urban spaces, (3) issues of belonging and access to health care, (4) impacts of structural violence on the lives of migrant women sex workers, (6) ways that perceptions and representations are impacted in group settings, and (5) the use of ‘innovative methodologies’ as a viable tool in social science research.
- ItemMigrant women in sex work: trajectories and perceptions of Zimbabwean sex workers in Hillbrow, South Africa(2010-08-10) Nyangairi, BarbraABSTRACT The economic and political collapse of Zimbabwe resulted in the movement of women and men beyond their borders in search of better economic opportunities. The movement of Zimbabwean women has been accompanied by an outcry in neighbouring countries about their involvement in sex work. Contrary to the sensationalised views in the media and the public health discourse, this work highlights the experiences of Zimbabwean sex workers in South Africa, to understand how they engage with discourses in sex work and sexuality given the norms and mores that govern sexuality in the African context. The aim of this study is to bring to the fore trajectories, experiences and perceptions of migrant sex workers in Johannesburg. Using postmodern feminism as a theoretical resource, the study is qualitative and employed ethnographic methods for data collection. The research was conducted in Diplomat Hotel, a hotel turned brothel on the periphery of Hillbrow, a residential area in Johannesburg. Using observation and informal interviews, the study explores Zimbabwean sex workers trajectories and perceptions of sex work. Findings suggest tensions and contradictions as women negotiate, challenge and resist the binaries of good woman/bad woman. It is clear that women view prostitution as work as it provides a livelihood for them and their families. However, there are times women embrace the shame and stigma society accords to sex work and self degrade. This reveals the fluidity and tension in their perceptions as women negotiate the polemic debates between the abolitionists and sex work advocates. Women have found ways to navigate the precarious sex work industry and retain their autonomy through the use of humour, a veto of certain clients and re-appropriation of the whore label. The study brings to the fore gender inequalities that keep women poor and predicate entry into sex work. The gendered nature of sex work and how most female work is unrewarded and unrewarding are exposed given the options open to women in the sex industry such as domestic work or the service industry. Zimbabwean sex workers have created their own social networks outside the accepted networks to deal with the everyday challenges of sex work. The study highlights systemic gender inequalities at the root of women’s entry into sex work. Finally, the study reveals that migrant women in sex work are propelled into sex work not by traffickers or pimps but structural gender inequalities embedded in marriage, the general disregard for feminised work and sexual inequalities in society.
- ItemPerceptual factors and Nigerian immigrants in Johannesburg: a study of the role of Nigerian-South African intermarriages in social integration(2011-09-22) Oluwafemi, AdeagboThis study seeks to understand how the general assumptions, perceptions, and representations of Nigerian immigrants shape marriages between Nigerian men and South African women in Johannesburg. It looks at the impact of prejudice on marriages between Nigerian men and South African women in an environment of generalized xenophobia and anti-Nigerian sentiments. This study looks into the private lives of intermarried couples, how they negotiate everyday discriminations and prejudices and the impact the usual general violent attacks and media reports bring upon their marriage. The major purpose of this study is to look at the impact of xenophobia and discrimination against Nigerian-South African marriages in Johannesburg. The study finds that despite the discriminations and prejudices directed against Nigerian immigrants in Johannesburg, Nigerian-South African couples often adopt love and humour to negotiate such discriminations. Also, the role of religion, particularly, the church in preaching and promoting love and unity among intermarried couples in this study is also significant. Further, this study finds that despite different contacts between Nigerian immigrants and South Africans through intermarriages, Nigerian husbands are subjected to close scrutiny to prove their innocence or confirm their guilt. Accordingly, the levels of integration differ among couples. Also, the study finds that this contact between Nigerian immigrants and South Africans is changing the perceptions and pre-conceived generalizations that all Nigerians are bad. The study is based on data gathered from a 4-month ethnographic fieldwork (August-November 2010) among Nigerian immigrants, South Africans and others (non-South Africans) in Johannesburg, South Africa. The data was collected through interviews of Nigerian immigrants, Nigerian husbands and their South African wives, friends and families. I interviewed 15 couples (Nigerian-South African couples), of both young and old marriages. The study uses Alba and Nee’s (2003) ‘intermarriage and assimilation theory’ which was originally applied in America to show the importance of intermarriage as the major indicator of integration. The context was quite different from South African context due to South Africa’s unique history and concept of marriage as well as the importance of other factors like employment, legal status etc as indicators of integration. Although this theory also works in the South African context by promoting more personal contacts between Nigerian immigrants and South Africans (particularly black South Africans), the continuous scrutiny of identity and integrity of Nigerian husbands make its operation different from where it was originally applied. Therefore, there were no absolutes in applying this theory in a South African context because intermarriage does not depict integration since other factors like employment and legal status play important roles in the integration process
- ItemSeeking goals in the urban estuary : how a personal migrant subjectivity is reified into productive strategies and generative social effects.(2014-07-28) O'Keefe, PeterUsing a micro-level frame of analysis, and working from in-depth interviews in Johannesburg's migrant-rich ‘urban estuaries,’ this research report considers participants’ personal, subjective, understanding of their own migrant-ness. The paper argues that theirs is a migrant subjectivity linked to the praxis of goal seeking, rather than the achievement of belonging. The goal seeking subjectivity is reified into pragmatic social strategies of network building, trust, and opportunity creation that undermine the concepts of generalized trust, communal social capital, and the host/migrant dichotomy. Personal subjectivies are rendered social. Denizens fill the social space with presentations and assessments of ‘mutual beneficence,’ and seek out demographically ambivalent networks of commonality.