Clinical and microbiological characterisation of invasive enteric pathogens in a South African population: the interaction with HIV

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dc.contributor.author Keddy, Karen Helena
dc.date.accessioned 2017-09-13T08:58:32Z
dc.date.available 2017-09-13T08:58:32Z
dc.date.issued 2017
dc.identifier.citation Keddy, Karen Helena (2017) Clinical and microbiological characterisation of invasive enteric pathogens in a South African population: the interaction with HIV, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, <http://hdl.handle.net/10539/23087>
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10539/23087
dc.description A Thesis Submitted to the School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Johannesburg, South Africa 2016. en_ZA
dc.description.abstract Introduction Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been associated with invasive enteric infections in HIV-infected patients, since it was first described in the 1980s. In South Africa, HIV remains an important health challenge, despite the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 2003. In association with this, is an ongoing problem of invasive enteric infections, including those due to Shigella and Salmonella, including Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (Salmonella Typhi). There are few South African data available as to the incidence of invasive disease due to these pathogens and how these data may contrast with the presentation and outcome in HIV-uninfected patients. The associated risk factors for mortality due to invasive enteric pathogens and whether there has been a response with ART as an intervention also needs further elucidation. Aims This work was undertaken to better describe the burden of invasive enteric infections (Shigella, nontyphoidal Salmonella and Salmonella Typhi) in association with HIV, define risk factors for mortality and establish whether the introduction of ART has impacted on disease burdens due to these pathogens. Methods Laboratory-based surveillance for enteric pathogens was initiated in 2003. Basic demographic details (age and gender) were collected on all patients where possible. In 25 hospital sites in all nine provinces, additional clinical information was collected by trained surveillance officers, including HIV status, data reflecting severity of illness, other immune suppressive conditions, antimicrobial and antiretroviral usage and outcome (survival versus death). Laboratories were requested to transport all isolates to the Centre for Enteric Diseases (CED) at the National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS) in Johannesburg for further characterisation, including serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and molecular typing where relevant (whether isolates could respectively be classified as Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 and Salmonella Typhi H58). Additional cases were sought through audits of the Central Data Warehouse (CDW) of the NHLS. Annual incidence rates were calculated according to published estimates of population by age group by the Actuarial Society of South Africa for the Department of Statistics of the South African government. Analyses were specifically directed at invasive shigellosis, Salmonella meningitis, typhoid fever in South Africa and nontyphoidal salmonellosis in Gauteng Province, South Africa. Data were recorded in an Access database and analysed using chisquared test to establish differences between HIV-infected and uninfected individuals and univariate and multivariate analysis to compare risk factors for mortality. Data in the number of patients accessing ART were derived through audits of the CDW, by using the numbers of patients on whom viral loads were done annually as a proxy. Results Between 2003 and 2013, a total of 10111 invasive enteric isolates were received by CED. For patients for whom sex was recorded, 3283/6244 (52.6%) of patients presenting with invasive enteric infections were male; invasive disease was predominantly observed in children less than five years of age (1605/6131; 26.2%) and those who were aged between 25 and 54 years (3186/6131; 52.0%), with the exception of typhoid fever where the major burden was in patients aged 5 to 14 years (302/855; 35.3%). KH Keddy 81-11384 PhD iv More HIV-infected adult women were observed with invasive shigellosis (P=0.002) and with typhoid fever compared with adult men (P=0.009). Adults aged ≥ 15 years were more likely to die than children aged < 15 years (invasive shigellosis, odds ratio [OR]=3.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.6 – 6.6, P=0.001; Salmonella meningitis, OR=3.7, 95% CI=1.7 – 8.1, P=0.001; typhoid fever, OR=3.7, 95% CI=1.1 – 14.9, P=0.03; invasive nontyphoidal salmonellosis, OR=2.0, 95% CI=1.6 – 2.5, P<0.001). HIV-infected patients had a significantly higher risk of mortality compared with HIVuninfected patients (invasive shigellosis, OR=4.1, 95% CI=1.5 – 11.8, P=0.008; Salmonella meningitis OR=5.3, 95% CI=1.4-20.0, P=0.013; typhoid fever, OR=11.3, 95% CI=3.0 – 42.4, P<0.001; invasive nontyphoidal salmonellosis OR=2.5, 95% CI=1.7 – 3.5, P<0.001). In all patients, severity of illness was the most significant factor contributing to mortality (invasive shigellosis, OR=22.9, 95% CI=2.7 – 194.2, P=0.004; Salmonella meningitis OR=21.6, 95% CI=3.5 – 133.3, P=0.01; typhoid fever, OR=10.8, 95% CI=2.9 – 39.5, P<0.001; invasive nontyphoidal salmonellosis OR=5.4, 95% CI=3.6 – 8.1, P<0.001). Between 2003 and 2013, ART was significantly associated with decreasing incidence rates of invasive nontyphoidal salmonellosis in adults aged 25 - 49 years (R=-0.92; P<0.001), but not in children (R=-0.50; P=0.14). Conclusion Decreasing incidence rates of invasive nontyphoidal salmonellosis and shigellosis suggest that ART is having an impact on opportunistic enteric disease in HIV. Further work is necessary however, to fully understand the associations between age, sex and invasive enteric pathogens. Specifically, this work would include typhoid fever, Shigella transmission from child to adult carer, development of invasive enteric infections in HIV-exposed children and whether the decreasing incidence rates can be sustained. Moving forward, an understanding of invasive enteric infections in the HIV-uninfected patient may assist in targeting severity of illness as a risk factor for mortality. en_ZA
dc.format.extent Online resource (xx, 189 leaves)
dc.language.iso en en_ZA
dc.subject.mesh HIV
dc.subject.mesh Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
dc.title Clinical and microbiological characterisation of invasive enteric pathogens in a South African population: the interaction with HIV en_ZA
dc.type Thesis en_ZA
dc.description.librarian MT2017 en_ZA


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