Osteogenic tumour in Australopithecus sediba: Earliest hominin evidence for neoplastic disease

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dc.contributor.author Randolph-Quinney, P.S.
dc.contributor.author Williams, S.A.
dc.contributor.author Steyn, M.
dc.contributor.author Meyer, M.R.
dc.contributor.author Smilg, J.S.
dc.contributor.author Churchill, S.E.
dc.contributor.author Odes, E.J.
dc.contributor.author Augustine, T.
dc.contributor.author Tafforeau, P.
dc.contributor.author Berger, L.R.
dc.date.accessioned 2017-02-09T13:30:22Z
dc.date.available 2017-02-09T13:30:22Z
dc.date.issued 2016-07
dc.identifier.citation Randolph-Quinney, P.S. et al. 2016.Osteogenic tumour in Australopithecus sediba: Earliest hominin evidence for neoplastic disease. South African Journal of Science 112 (7/8): Article number 2015-0470. en_ZA
dc.identifier.issn 0038-2353 (Print)
dc.identifier.issn 1996-7489 (Online)
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10539/21986
dc.description.abstract We describe the earliest evidence for neoplastic disease in the hominin lineage. This is reported from the type specimen of the extinct hominin Australopithecus sediba from Malapa, South Africa, dated to 1.98 million years ago. The affected individual was male and developmentally equivalent to a human child of 12 to 13 years of age. A penetrating lytic lesion affected the sixth thoracic vertebra. The lesion was macroscopically evaluated and internally imaged through phase-contrast X-ray synchrotron microtomography. A comprehensive differential diagnosis was undertaken based on gross- and micro-morphology of the lesion, leading to a probable diagnosis of osteoid osteoma. These neoplasms are solitary, benign, osteoid and bone-forming tumours, formed from well-vascularised connective tissue within which there is active production of osteoid and woven bone. Tumours of any kind are rare in archaeological populations, and are all but unknown in the hominin record, highlighting the importance of this discovery. The presence of this disease at Malapa predates the earliest evidence of malignant neoplasia in the hominin fossil record by perhaps 200 000 years. en_ZA
dc.language.iso en en_ZA
dc.publisher Academy of Science of South Africa (ASSAf). en_ZA
dc.rights © 2016. The Author(s). Published under a Creative Commons Attribution Licence. en_ZA
dc.subject Malapa en_ZA
dc.subject palaeopathology en_ZA
dc.subject neoplasia en_ZA
dc.subject taphonomy en_ZA
dc.subject osteoma en_ZA
dc.subject malignant en_ZA
dc.title Osteogenic tumour in Australopithecus sediba: Earliest hominin evidence for neoplastic disease en_ZA
dc.type Article en_ZA
dc.journal.volume 112 en_ZA
dc.journal.title South African Journal of Science. en_ZA
dc.description.librarian NCS2016 en_ZA
dc.citation.doi 10.17159/sajs.2016/20150470 en_ZA
dc.citation.epage 7 en_ZA
dc.citation.issue 7/8 en_ZA
dc.citation.spage 1 en_ZA


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