An investigation of the structural and magnetic properties of Ho substituted BiFeO3

Show simple item record Ncube, Mehluli 2012-09-18T05:38:43Z 2012-09-18T05:38:43Z 2012-09-18
dc.description.abstract The doping of BiFeO3 with lanthanide elements like Ho, with a radius smaller than Bi, is ideal to improve the ferroelectric and magnetic properties of BiFeO3, which in principle can cause structural distortions of the lattice that improve the electrical and magnetic properties. In this work, we report on the temperature dependence of the structural and magnetic properties of Ho substituted BiFeO3 (BHFO) samples, which have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Mössbauer spectroscopic techniques. The XRD and Mössbauer measurements were done at room temperature on the as-synthesized BHFO samples and after annealing the samples in Argon up to 1073 K. The resultant XRD patterns have shown that BHFO is of rhombohedral R3m space group, with a majority Bi25FeO90 phase and a minority Bi2Fe4O9 phase. These two phases are attributed to the local stoichometry fluctuations in BiFeO3 (BFO). A new phase was evident in the XRD spectra after annealing the sample between 673 – 873 K; this has been assigned to the octahedral B-site of Fe3O4. The Mössbauer spectra were characterized by broadened features and the magnetic hyperfine splitting patterns were indicative of magnetic ordering mostly probably screwed or slightly antiferromagnetic ordering. The spectra were fitted with two symmetric sextets (S1 & S2) which were present in all annealed samples, a symmetric sextet (S3) which was observable at annealing temperatures greater than 673 K, a Lorentzian doublet (D) and a single line (SL) which were present in all spectra. The extracted hyperfine parameters of sextet S1 are consistent with those of rhombohedral BiFeO3 and are characteristic of magnetically ordered Fe3+. At TA > 673 K, a third sextet S3 was assigned to the high symmetry cubic spinel phase. The paramagnetic doublet D was attributed to the Bi25FeO40 phase and the singlet line SL to the Bi2Fe4O9 phase which has been observed previously in the studies of BiFeO3 and other BiFeO3 doped systems. The isomer shift and quadrupole splitting values of the paramagnetic doublet D corresponds to an oxidation state of Fe3+, while the isomer shift of S1 remained fairly constant up to TA = 623 K then decreased gradually after the appearance of S3 indicating an increase of the s-electron density at the Fe nucleus. The quadrupole splitting of S2 showed no systematic change with annealing temperature, however at TA > 623 K this parameter changed dramatically to a negative value with a slightly larger magnetic field. The distribution of the isomer shift and the difference in the quadrupole splitting values and signs are due the variation in the angles between the principal axis of the electric field gradient (EFG) and the spin direction. The hyperfine fields of S1 and S2 remained fairly constant for all measured samples, however at TA > 623 K the hyperfine field of S3 showed a slight increase which could be due to Ho being substituted at the Fe site in BiFeO3. In addition, in-situ Mössbauer measurements at temperatures in the range 300 – 748 K were made on the BHFO samples. The room temperature spectrum showed similar features as observed on the annealing series of measurements. The hyperfine magnetic fields of the two sextet components (S1 and S2) decreased with increasing temperature and finally collapsed at T > 588 K. The hyperfine fields of both the S1 and S2 components decreased systematically with temperature to a field distribution just below the Néel temperature. From our measurements, we estimated the Néel temperature for BHFO to be in the range 598 – 617 K. The isomer shift for all spectral components showed a linear decrease with increasing temperature which closely followed the usual second order Doppler shift variation with temperature. The S1 and S2 spectral components present at room temperature disappeared just before the Néel temperature resulting in the area fraction of the paramagnetic doublet D dominating the spectrum. From the site populations, an average Debye temperature (θD) was estimated to be 240 ± 81 K for BHFO which is lower than the value of 340 ± 50 K cited for BiFeO3. en_ZA
dc.language.iso en en_ZA
dc.subject.lcsh Rare earth metals.
dc.subject.lcsh Metals - Magnetic properties.
dc.subject.lcsh Ferroelectricity.
dc.subject.lcsh Bismuth ferrite.
dc.title An investigation of the structural and magnetic properties of Ho substituted BiFeO3 en_ZA
dc.type Thesis en_ZA

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